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American Indian (English)
, L Unified Magazine
SsJ Now in 17 Languages
See Page 4
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Under the direction
the Prophet, a divinely
inspired program has been
established to meet your social
and spiritual needs —
The Institute of Religion.
INVOLVE YOURSELF IN THE INSTITUTE PROGRAM NOW!
On the Cover:
Our cover features a recent issue of the
so-called Unified Magazine, a somewhat ap-
propriate term used to describe a 36-page
monthly magazine available to members of
the Church in 17 language areas. The March
Era cover was used on this issue.
Since the editorial selection, layout and
design, illustrations and photographs, and
covers for the magazines are determined at
Church headquarters, the term unified maga-
zine has come to reflect the process of pro-
duction. Interestingly, from selection of the
editorial material until completion of printing
in 17 languages takes about four months and
involves many steps, some of which present
intriguing difficulties: For example, for some
languages it takes up to 20 percent more
space to say the same thing than in English.
Hence, an article design and layout for each
magazine must take this into consideration.
Even the editorial selection presents chal-
lenges: While not all areas of the Church
have temples, seminary programs, or the
same attitudes about all subjects, editorial
selection must attempt to meet the general
needs of all Latter-day Saints and the specific
needs of each lingual group-culture.
For more information about this important
development in Church correlation and ad-
ministration, see page 4 for "The Unified
Magazine" by Doyle L. Green, Improvement
Era managing editor and managing editor of
the Editorial Department. This new Church
department is responsible, among other
things, for the editing of all Church manuals
and instructional materials and the produc-
tion of the Unified Magazine.
The "Editor's Page" in 17 languages
The Voice of the Church • August 1969 • Volume 72, Number 8
2 The Editors Page: Our Worldwide Church, President David 0. McKay
4 The Unified Magazine, Doyle L. Green
8 The Open House Program, Dr. Edwin O. Haroldsen
20 Keep Cool: An Open Letter to Anguished Parents
28 The Smiths Who Handled the Plates (Part 10), Dr. Richard Lloyd
50 On Reaching for the Moon, William T. Sykes
60 An 1833 Guide for the Prevention of Heart Disease, Dr. Ray G. Cowley
75 A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price: Part 8, Facsimile No. 1, by
the Figures, Dr. Hugh Nibley
16 Melchizedek Priesthood Page: How to Use Records and Reports, Elder
Delbert L. Stapley
24 Teaching: The Pay That Doesn't Come in an Envelope, Wayne B. Lynn
53 Today's Family: When Family Means Roommates, Eleanor Knowles
58 The Church Moves On
64 Presiding Bishop's Page: The Presiding Bishop Talks to Youth About
the Word of Wisdom, Bishop John H. Vandenberg
66 The LDS Scene
69 Buffs and Rebuffs
70 Lest We Forget: Evening Time With the Joseph Smith Family, Albert L.
72 These Times: The New Commandment, Dr. G. Homer Durham
88 End of an Era
61, 67, 69, 71 The Spoken Word, Richard L. Evans
Era of Youth
35-49 Marion D. Hanks and Elaine Cannon, Editors
12 Put a Star on Shadow Mountain, Caroi Clark Ottesen
26, 32, 34, 56 Poetry
David 0. McKay and Richard L. Evans, Editors; Doyle L Green, Managing Editor; Albert L. Zobell, Jr., Research Editor; Mabel Janes Gabbott, Jay M, Todd,
Eleanor Knowles, William T. Sykes, Editorial Associates; Marion D. Hanks, Era of Youth Editor; Elaine Cannon. Era of Youth Associate Editor;
Ralph Reynolds, Art Director; Norman F. Price, Staff Artist.
G. Homer Durham, Franklin S. Harris, Jr., Hugh Nibley, Sidney B. Sperry, Albert L. Payne, Contributing Editors.
G. Carlos Smith, Jr., General Manager; Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager; Verl F. Scott, Business Manager; A. Glen Snarr, Acting Business
Manager and Subscription Director; Thayer Evans, S. Glenn Smith, Advertising Representatives.
©General Superintendent, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1969, and published by the
Mutual Improvement Associations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. All rights reserved. Subscription price, $3.00 a year, in advance;
multiple subscriptions, 2 years. $5.75; 3 years, $8.25; each succeeding year, $2.50 a year added to the three-year price; 350 single copy, except for
Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City) Utah, as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103,
act of October 1917, authorized July 2, 1918.
The Improvement Era is not responsible for unsolicited manuscripts but welcomes contributions. Manuscripts are paid for on acceptance and must be
accompanied by sufficient postage for delivery and return.
Thirty days' notice is required for change of address. When ordering a change, please include address slip from a recent issue of the magazine. Address
changes cannot be made unless the old address as well as the new one is included.
Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums, Mutual Improvement Associations, Home Teaching Committee,
Music Committee, Church School System, and other agencies of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
The Improvement Era, 79 South State, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111
The Editor's Page
Our Worldwide Church
A Message in 17 Tongues
Var Verdensomspennende Kirke
Av president David O. McKay
Gud velsigne Kirken. Den er verden-
somspennende og dens innflydelse skulle
bli f0lt av alle nasjoner. Ma hans
and influere menneskene overalt og
vende deres hjerter mot forstaelse og
Var Varldsomfattande Kyrka
Av president David O. McKay
Ma Gud valsigna kyrkan. Den stracker
sig over hela jorden och dess inflytande
borde kannas av alia lander. Ma hans
ande utgjutas over manskor overallt och
vanda deras hjartan mot fred och god
Nossa Igreja Mundial
Pelo Presidente David O. McKay
Que Deus aben^oe a Igreja. E mundial,
e sua influencia deve tocar todas as
nacoes. Que Seu espirito possa influ-
enciar a humanidade e inclinar seus
coracoes a paz e boa vontade.
Onze Wereldomvattende Kerk
Door president David 0. McKay
God zegene de Kerk. Zij is werel-
domspannend en haar invloed moet wel
door alle naties gevoeld worden. Moge
Gods Geest het ganse mensdom bein-
vloeden en hun hart richten tot vrede
en in de mensen een welbehagen,
ft ti t tMk,
La Nostra Chiesa Mondiale
di Presidente David O. McKay
Dio benedica la Chiesa. E'una Chiesa
conosciuta in tutto il mondo e la sua in-
fluenza dovra essere sentita in tutte le
nazioni. Che il suo spirito abbia influ-
enza negli uomini ovunque e incline i
loro cuori verso la buona volonta e la
Our Worldwide Church
By President David 0. McKay
God bless the Church. It is worldwide,
and its influence should be felt by all
nations. May his spirit influence men
everywhere and incline their hearts to-
ward goodwill and peace.
Unsere Weltumspannende Kirche
von President David O. McKay
Gott segne die Kirche. Sie umspannt
die ganze Welt und alle Lander sollen
ihren Einflufi spiiren. Moge Sein Geist
alle Menschen beeinflussen, damit sie
guten Willens und friedlich gesinnt sind.
Notre Eglise Universelle
par le president David O. McKay
Dieu benisse l'Eglise! Elle est uni-
verselle et toutes les nations devraient
subir son influence. Puisse Son esprit
influer sur tous les hommes et incliner
leur coeur vers la bonne volonte et la
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Presidentti David 0. McKay
Jumala siunatkoon kirkkoa. Se on
maailmanlaajuinen ja kaikkien kansa-
kuntien tulisi tuntea sen vaikutus.
Koskettakoon Hanen Henkensa ihmisia
kaikkialla ja vaikuttakoon heidan syda-
miinsa niin, etta vallitsisi rauha ja hyva
American Indian (English)
Our Worldwide Church
By President David 0. McKay
God bless the Church. It is worldwide,
and its influence should be felt by all
nations. May his spirit influence men
everywhere and incline their hearts to-
ward goodwill and peace.
La Tatou Ekalesia I Le Lalolagi Atoa
Tautalagia e Peresitcne David O. McKay
la fa'amanuia e le Atua le Ekalesia.
Ua i ai nei i le lalolagi atoa ma e tatau
ai ona lagonaina e atunu'u uma lona
aoga. la musuia e Lona Agaga tagata
uma i so'o se atunu'u ma fa'aua'i atu 6
latou loto i le alofa ma le filemu.
Hotau Siasi Faka'Univeesi
Fai 'e Palcsiteni David O. McKay
'Ofa ke tapuekina 'e he 'Otua 'a e
Siasi. Kuo hoko ia ko ha siasi faka'uni-
veesi, pea 'e ongona 'a hono ongo 'e he
ngaahi pule'anga kotoa pe. 'Ofa ke
fakaue'i 'e Hono laumalie 'a e kakai 'i
he potu kotoa pe, pea ke takiekina honau
loto ki he loto 'ofa mo e melino.
Ta Tatou Ekalesia i Te Ao Taatoa Nei
Na te Peresideni David O. McKay
la haamaitaihia te Ekalesia e te Atua.
Tei roto te Ekalesia i te ao taatoa nei e
to'na mana e mea tia ja i te faariihia e
te mau nunaa atoa. Na te varua o te
Atua e faauru i te mau taata i te mau
vahi atoa e, e faafariu i to ratou mau
aau i roto i te hinaaro maitai e te hau.
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Vor Verdensomspsendende Kirke
Af President David 0. McKay
Gud velsigne Kirken. Den er verden-
somspsendende, og dens indflydelse
burde f0les af alle nationer. Ma Hans
and 0ve indflydelse pa mennesker over-
alt i verden og forlene deres hjerter med
trangen til at vise god vilje og skabe
Nuestra Iglesia Es Mundial
Por el Prcsidente David O. McKay
Dios bendiga la Iglesia. Esta en todo
el mundo y su influencia se debe sentir
en todas las naciones. Que su Espiritu
ilumine a los hombres en todas partes
y conduzca sus corazones hacia la paz y
The Church sends its messages
to the worl d throu gh the
By Doyle L. Green
farly in August Chinese
members of the Church
in the Southern Far East
Mission will receive in
the mail copies of a monthly magazine, 8% x 11 inches
in size. On the cover will be a beautiful full-color
reprocluction of a painting of Noah warning the people
of the impending flood. The name of the magazine in
Chinese is ^£ j £ 2LJk ^t, which interpreted
means The Voice of the Saints.
When the magazine arrives, many fathers in those
far-off lands will gather their families around them,
talk about the cover, then open the magazine to the
lead article on the first page, and read a message from
the Prophet of the Lord, President David O. McKay.
There is such a message in each issue. The August
article is entitled "The Gate of Baptism."
From the native Chinese characters he would read:
'Baptism,' said the Prophet Joseph Smith, 'is a sign
from God, . . . and there is no other way beneath the
heavens wherebv God hath ordained for man to come
to Him to be saved, and enter into the Kingdom of
God, except faith in Jesus Christ, repentance, and
baptism for the remission of sins, and any other course
is in vain: then you have the promise of the gift of
the Holy Ghost.'
"Baptism is one of the first principles and ordinances
of the gospel. . . ." (See Era, April 1969, p. 2.)
Finishing the article by President McKay, which fills
two pages, the family may discuss the meaning of this
important message to them. Then turning through
the magazine, they will find articles and features of
value and interest to every family member. For exam-
ple, there are three other messages from General
Authorities: "Perhaps the Hardest Lesson to Learn,"
by Elder Richard L. Evans of the Council of the
Twelve; "A Message of Inspiration," by Elder Theo-
dore M. Burton, Assistant to the Council of the Twelve;
and "The Presiding Bishop Talks to Youth About
Tithing," by Bishop John H. Vandenberg.
The children will find four pages of material that
includes pictures of and quotations from each member
of the Council of the Twelve. In addition, there will
be the following features: a story, "Personal Appraisal,"
an account of two men who placed personal integrity
above personal gain; an article called "Adults— and
This Business of Learning"; and the following addi-
tional features: "Mother Habits," "Planning Your Les-
son Presentation," "A Rewarding Rule of Health,"
"Friends Are Made at MIA," "Power? To Do What?"
and "The Evil Designs of Men." In the back of the
magazine they will find interesting and vital items
concerning the Church and Church members in the
Southern Far East Mission. Some 1,000 copies of the
Chinese The Voice of the Saints are distributed each
On approximately the same day members of the
Church in 16 other language areas throughout the
world will receive the same basic magazine with the
same cover, same layouts, same photographs, same
articles and features, but translated into and printed
in their own languages. The primary difference be-
tween the magazines will be the five pages of items
of local interest.
The idea for a unified magazine for the non-English-
speaking peoples of the Church was developed by
Elder Howard W. Hunter of the Council of the Twelve
in 1966 when he was supervising the European
As he traveled from one mission to another and
observed the workings of the mission staffs, Elder
Hunter noted the great amount of time that was being
spent by mission presidents and missionaries in produc-
ing mission magazines. Also, he was concerned because
the magazines varied so much in quality and in content.
He then set about to unify and correlate the efforts
going into the publications with the goal in mind of:
saving precious missionary hours, cutting expenses,
and at the same time upgrading the quality of the
In working out the problems, Elder Hunter sought
the assistance of Bishop John H. Vandenberg and
Bishop Victor L. Brown of the Presiding Bishopric,
who supervise translation and distribution services
for the Church. Much credit for helping develop the
idea goes to the staff of the Distribution and Transla-
tion Division, which at the time was managed by
J. Thomas Fyans and which is now supervised by
John E. Carr.
After a good deal of study it was concluded that
the best way to proceed would be to select the most
vital and appropriate articles prepared for use in
The Improvement Era, The Instructor, The Children's
Friend, and The Relief Society Magazine, combine
these with articles prepared by various Church orga-
nizations, and add some local material prepared under
the direction of the mission presidents. These articles
and features would then be translated into the various
languages. This would make it possible for one
central staff to perform work that had formerly been
done in almost every mission area in the Church.
The first edition of the new unified magazine ap-
peared in March 1967 in nine European languages. As
leaders in other mission areas saw the value and poten-
tial of the publication, other languages were added,
and soon the service was extended to other areas,
including the Far East and Polynesia. Today the
magazine is being printed in 17 languages, including
the English edition for the American Indians. The
languages in which the magazine is now being printed
and the name of the publication in each follow:
KTJ * H \fr:
These eight different language maga-
zines are printed in Frankfurt, Germany.
(for American Indiav
O Le Liahona
Ko E Tuhulu
of the Saints
of the Saints
of the Saints
It is interesting to note that four of the publications
are called Liahona, after the compass that the Lord
provided for the prophet Lehi to guide his family
through the wilderness.
A number of these publications will be familiar to
returned missionaries and others, as some of these
magazines have been published for many years, The
German Der Stern, for example, this year printed a
special issue in observance of its one-hundredth anni-
versary. It was begun in 1869 and has a long and
honored history of useful service to the German-speak-
ing peoples. Today it has a circulation of about 6,000.
The Spanish Lialwna, which has a current circulation
of 7,700, has been published since 1945.
The next largest magazine in point of circulation
(3,750) is the French L'Etoile. It has been printed
On the other hand, some of the magazines are very
new and have small circulations. The Italian La Stella,
for example, has a circulation of 500. The newest
magazine of the group is the Tahitian Te Tiarama,
which serves the Saints in the French Polynesian
Mission. It was first issued in August 1968. The
French L'Etoile is also circulated among the Saints
in that mission.
In August 1968 the editorial responsibility for the
Unified Magazine was transferred to the newly formed
Church Editorial Department, which functions under
the supervision of the chairman of the Correlation
Executive Committee, Elder Harold B. Lee. Each
month materials from our current English language
magazines are carefully selected and screened by the
editorial staff, and the proposed articles and features
for the unified magazines are selected. These are
reviewed by a committee from the Church's Transla-
tion Department, made up of representatives of the
various language areas. They are then read by repre-
sentatives of the Church's Correlation Committee.
Layouts are made, photographs and art work are
selected or produced, and duplicate sets of the trans-
lator's copy are then forwarded by the Translation
Department to its representatives in the language
areas, where the material is translated into 16 lan-
guages. The translations are then forwarded, along
with five pages of materials provided by the missions,
to one of seven printing centers, where they are set into
In the meantime, the editorial staff in Salt Lake City
has had produced duplicate sets of color separations
to be used for the cover. These are generally taken
from The Improvement Era. Duplicate sets of positive
or negative films of all the photographs and other
art work to be used on the inside pages are also made.
These, along with complete layouts and printing in-
structions, are sent directly to the printing centers,
where the material is then all assembled and the
magazines are printed.
Printing centers for the magazines are: English
(American Indian) and Spanish, Salt Lake City;
Portuguese, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Samoan, Tongan, and
Tahitian, Auckland, New Zealand; German, Italian,
Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, French, Danish, and
Dutch, Frankfurt, Germany; Chinese, Hong Kong;
Japanese, Tokyo; Korean, Seoul.
The unified magazine program is in keeping with
the desires of the General Authorities to give our
brothers and sisters, wherever they may live, the ad-
vantage of as much of the Church program as possible.
Through the magazine important messages from the
General Authorities and vital items concerning the
Church, its doctrine, policies, and developments are
now being sent monthly in essentially the same form
into homes of Church members and friends through-
out the world.
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Portuguese version is printed in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The Chinese
version is printed in Hong Kong, Korean in Seoul, and Japanese
in Tokyo. Samoan, Tahitian, and Tongan magazines are printed
in Auckland, New Zealand.
Bishop A. Barrie Best of the Racine (Wisconsin) Ward
discusses meaning of the temple at Kenosha open house.
Elder Daniel B. Baxter, Northern States mission-
ary, explains Church organization to young boys.
Visitors at the open house engage in informal, easy-going, pleasant discussion.
The Open House Program
By Dr. Edwin 0. Haroldsen
Edwin 0. Haroldsen, Chicago regional editor of a weekly national news
magazine, is a member of the Chicago South Stake high council.
A popular and effective method to introduce the Church to non-
member friends and neighbors is to hold an open house. Simply
stated, an open house is an opportunity for members and mission-
aries to bring visitors and guests by personal invitation to a house
of the Lord. The main plan of the social-spiritual evening includes
a tour of the building, an explanation of specially prepared exhibits
on gospel principles , perhaps a movie, and light refreshments. The
story of this activity in one mission is detailed in the following
article. Hopefully you and your branch or ivard members will be
encouraged to help your mission president, stake or fulltime mission-
aries, seventies, ayid home teachers to hold your oivn open houses.
Missionary open houses in the
Northern States Mission the past
year stirred many to action — and
a significant number of investiga-
tors were baptized.
A meter maid in uniform and on
duty stopped in at a downtown
open house in Kenosha, Wisconsin,
intending to stay but a few min-
utes. She remained an hour, took
the tour, and saw the Church's
Bishop Barrie encourages a couple attend-
ing the open house to register their visit.
Ward member at the Kenosha, Wisconsin,
open house answers gospe/ queries of visi-
movie Man's Search for Happi-
ness. She is now studying the gos-
Approximately 1,500 nonmem-
bers were given a glimpse of Mor-
mon doctrine and family life at 75
open houses in four states in the
Northern States Mission in 1968.
(In the first five months of 1969,
1,951 attended.) Nearly 150 of
these — or one in ten — were bap-
tized into the Church, reports
Warren W. Henderson, recently
released mission president. They
accounted for about 20 percent
of the mission's 724 convert bap-
tisms last year.
Open house visitors came from
varied backgrounds — mayors of
Clinton, Iowa; DeKalb, Illinois; and
Kenosha, Wisconsin; the president
of Prairie State College near Chi-
cago; 50 ministers of other faiths;
people from many walks of life.
A woman whose daughter was
recently baptized came to an open
house in West Frankfort, Illinois,
"to see the church that has done
so much for my daughter."
At Kenosha, nonmembers bought
50 copies of the Book of Mormon,
and at the Logan Square Ward in
Chicago, almost that many were
Visitors carried away 500 free
copies of the Family Home Eve-
ning Manual in open houses over
the mission last year.
A nonmember woman with a
master's degree in history took
one of the manuals at the Univer-
sity Ward open house in Chicago
and read 26 lessons in a short
time. Depressed on one occasion,
she picked up the manual and
read about the virtue of work.
Then she reported she went out
and cleaned her car and "felt so
After an open house in Freeport,
Illinois, a nonmember family be-
gan holding regular family home
evenings using the manual. A 50-
year-old woman took three man-
uals at the DeKalb, Illinois, open
house to give to other people.
The wife of a physician in Ke-
nosha said the manual is just what
she needs when her family is at
their cabin or can't make it to
their church on Sundays. She has
also invited missionaries into her
Some 25,000 personal invita-
tions plus posters, newspaper
stories, and hundreds of radio and
TV announcements have helped
bringfriends to open houses. A Mil-
waukee station, WITI-TV, showed
a 50-second color film of an open
house on its 10 p.m. news broad-
cast. WGN, one of Chicago's prin-
cipal radio stations, announced
the Logan Square Ward open house
The Madison, Wisconsin, CBS
affiliate, WISC-TV, telecast a ses-
sion of general conference. Dur-
ing all of the breaks in this pro-
gram the station mentioned an up-
coming Madison open house and
made up its own TV slides adver-
tising the event.
* A woman in Sauk City, Wiscon-
sin, 40 miles away, after learning
of the Madison open house from
a TV announcement, telephoned
long distance to find out about it
and brought three nonmember
Two college graduates, one a
bank teller and the other a teach-
er, attended an open house in
Oregon, Illinois, after seeing a
poster in a store window.
A young 19-year-old college
student of suburban Chicago met
"some wonderful Mormon girls"
while vacationing in Wyoming. She
wanted to join the Church then,
but her parents asked her to wait.
When she returned home from her
vacation, she saw an advertise-
ment of an open house to be held
in Wilmette, Illinois. Her parents
attended with her and were so im-
pressed they consented to her
baptism shortly after.
A world traveler learned of an
open house in Wilmette through
reading a newspaper announce-
ment. At the open house, he was
told about Tuesday night geneal-
ogy classes; he replied, "Well,
this is where I belong."
A Milwaukee family saw a news-
paper announcement, attended an
open house, and joined the
A 17-year-old Catholic high
school girl attended an open house
at Kenosha because she heard
she could get information on ge-
nealogy and family trees. She com-
mented after seeing the film
Man's Search for Happiness: "The
fact that your members and repre-
sentatives have such courage of
their convictions really amazes
When the elders later called on
the family, they were welcomed
warmly. They learned that the
grandparents had attended the
same open house, and that neither
family had known in advance that
the other would attend. They are
now teaching the family the gospel.
Many others have continued
studying the gospel after attend-
ing an open house the past year.
When missionaries made a follow-
up visit to a family in Chicago, the
mother announced: "We're going
to have the six lessons."
"We're the ones who give them,"
replied Elder Michael D. Alvey of
Salt Lake City.
Connie Mowrey attended an
open house in Davenport, Iowa, in
September, and joined the Church
in December. On a single Satur-
day recently, five persons were
baptized in Davenport and five in
Champaign, Illinois, as a direct
result of open houses.
Beverly Bicker attended an open
house in Freeport, Illinois, in June
Two recent converts, Brother and Sister
William Hermann, discuss Church teachings.
Below, left: Visitors at open house step inside mock home for family evening.
Below, right: Children of Bishop and Sister Best take part in presentation.
1968. When the elders came by
later, she let them in because
"everyone was so friendly." She
attended her next open house, in
October, as a member.
A stake missionary brought Mrs.
Jayne M. Sears and her two sons
to an open house in Elgin, Illinois,
in October. She was baptized dur-
ing the Christmas holidays.
Friends attending open houses
during the year were generally en-
Elder Glen T. Martineau explains to police
meter maid Christ's visitation to America.
Kenosha open house also presented a typ-
ical family enjoying family home evening.
thusiastic. At Galesburg, Illinois,
the city's fire chief commented:
"Interesting and enlightening anal-
ysis of the teachings and prac-
tices of your church. Should be
seen and heard by more people of
other churches to relieve them of
many of their prejudices toward
your church. I have served in the
armed forces and elsewhere with
Mormons and can state I have
never met a Mormon I did not like
A pastor of the Reformed
Church in America, Chicago, asked
for a copy of the song "I Am a
Child of God," sung during a dem-
onstration of the family home eve-
A Catholic high school teacher
commented after an open house
at Galesburg, Illinois, "Truthfully
that which interested me and im-
pressed me most was the sincerity
and enthusiasm of the young men
who presented the various por-
tions of the program. Thank you
and God bless you all."
A Peoria, Illinois, teenager,
Shirley Kincade, commented, "I
have asked God in my prayers to
give me the wisdom I lacked. I
know that from my discussions
tonight God has answered my
prayers." She was later baptized.
A nonmember visitor comment-
ed, after seeing the John Sonnen-
berg family demonstrate the family
home evening at an open house
at Naperville, Illinois: "Oh, that
Sonnenberg family — you won't see
any of those kids growing up and
A Catholic woman bought a
Tabernacle Choir record at the
Kenosha, Wisconsin, open house.
She stated, "I am impressed with
the kindness and true brotherly
love of the Latter-day Saint mem-
In Kenosha, an open house held
in a vacant store in a good down-
town location attracted 100 non-
Declared Bishop Joseph R. Lar-
sen, Jr., of Champaign (Illinois)
"We have been delighted to use
the new open house program. At
our first open house we had some
200 or more people, about 80 per-
cent of them nonmember friends.
In every case they were most fa-
vorably impressed with the build-
ing, the program, the gracious
members, and especially the
young full-time missionaries. Many
of the visitors are now investigat-
Approximately 7,000 members
assisted with open houses in the
mission in 1968.
After the initial open houses in
early 1968, President Henderson
saw the need for better displays.
Transparencies were obtained from
Salt Lake City, and display boxes
with fluorescent lights and other
materials were made for the trav-
eling displays. "The open houses
have really been wonderful," says
President Henderson. "They'll be
even better this year. We'll hold
100 or more over the mission."
In the first nine open houses
held in 1969, beginning with one
in the new Nauvoo, Illinois, chapel,
747 nonmembers have visited the
displays and heard the message of
the Church. The average this year
has been 83 nonmembers per
open house — more than four times
the average of 1968. The atten-
dance was particularly outstanding
in the Nauvoo area, where more
than 200 nonmembers heard the
message of the Church.
Missionaries have noted that
the home evening demonstration
has been effective with members
as well as nonmembers — many
members who previously had not
been holding family home evenings
have now begun to hold them. In
all of 1968, 500 Family Home
Evening Manuals were distrib-
uted; in just one month (March)
this year, 393 were given out.
. ' ..
•"It was him, Stanley!"
Two Indian boys, 12 and 15 years old, crouched in a
patch of scrub oak and yellow chamiso, their eyes
squinting against the setting sun of the Painted Desert.
They scanned the horizon for a flash of reddish-brown
and white and listened like transfixed animals for a
"He came from the canyon. I know it was him," re-
peated Reynolds in a coarse whisper.
The younger boy closed his eyes against the glare
and thought about his horse. He had been thrilled
when Uncle Fitz found that mustang, trained it, and
gave it to him to help herd the sheep. Last fall when
Father had gone away on his construction job and he
and Stanley had gone to foster homes in Los Angeles
to go to school, they had had to let the horse go.
Nobody was left to ride him. Then, too, it was hard
enough to get food for the family through the winter,
let alone to feed a horse. So they had taken off the
stallion's rope bridle and watched him streak away
toward Shadow Mountain. A horse can get pretty wild
in a year.
Reynolds sighed and moved from his haunches to
a cross-legged position in front of a tree. "He's gone
again. I can't see or hear anything.''
"Let's just leave him, Reynolds. We go back to
California next week anyway."
There was a pause and then a stolid announcement.
"I'm not going back!"
"Not going back! How come? The Stacey's— I mean,
I thought you liked them. You had everything you
"I know. But— well, there's so many rules with them.
Here I am one of the Dineh. I can ride my horse for
miles with the wind in my face and my knife at my
side! No haircut, no bath, no bed to make, no hard
lessons to do!"
"But you have to go to school."
"I'll go," Reynolds conceded. "I'll go to Tuba City
Boarding School and come weekends to my horse."
"Well, I'm going back," confirmed Stanley as he
stood up, following a jackrabbit in the sight of his
.22 rifle. "Have to, if I'm going to be a doctor some-
time like Chee Begay."
"Who needs the white man's language and school
when I can shoot that rabbit 50 yards away?" Reynolds
Indians don't kiss/
he frowningly stated,
as she put out her arms"
spit into the dust and ended the conversation.
The boys just sat. Stanley rested while Reynolds
twirled a stick in the dust, remembering how it was
when he went to Los Angeles last fall on the big
silver bus. . . .
First of all, he sure did Stanley a favor by smashing
his glasses before they arrived so Stan wouldn't be
embarrassed to meet his new parents. He just wished
he'd done away with his straw hat too, because when
they arrived at the big gym at the church nobody was
wearing such a thing.
The church hall was big and busy, with lots of
lines to stand in, a dozen (he was sure) shots in the
arm, swarms of strange faces trying to be friendly,
new food that tasted too sweet, a chorus of noisy cars
with anxious foster parents in them coming to pick up
their children— all clanging together like a million
Just don't kiss me, he thought, as he waited in the
big room for his name to be called.
"Reynolds Napa," called the caseworker in a voice
that electrified him.
He walked slowly to the small room to meet his
foster family, forgetting even to say good-bye to Stan-
ley. He hesitated at the door until the caseworker
motioned him in before a mother, father, two brothers,
and three sisters. He looked quickly away from their
gaze, wishing he were a groundhog and could drop
suddenly into a hole. The mother put out her arms,
but he said, with his best frown, "Indians don't kiss."
Her hand was soft as she shook his, and then she
smiled, smelling like something sweet that made him
want to sneeze. The father's arm felt warm on his
shoulder as he took him to a long green car and drove
to a house bigger than some of the big houses in Flag-
Reynolds' head swam with all the strangeness, but
right off he found out about the rules and limits. There
was a bike to ride, but you had to be careful of cars.
You could run a block, but you had to stop when
the light was red. Haircuts were every other Wednes-
day—music lessons on Tuesday— Scouts on Thursday
Carol Clark Ottesen, Relief Society instructor in the
Palos Verdes (California) Ward, is mother of five and
foster mother to an Indian boy from whose background
arose this true story.
—church on Sunday. And the air always smelled of
gasoline! He had longed for a whiff of sage and the
sharpness of the fall air on the desert, even if he did
have a brand new Scout uniform!
School was also hard. Everybody knew more than
he did. The teacher talked fast and used words he
didn't understand. He thought all the time of how
smart he had been in boarding school and how dumb
he was in California.
Yet— he would miss Eric. Eric was vice-president of
the students, and everybody liked him, but Reynolds
smiled when he thought how he could wrestle his
white brother to the floor of their bedroom. Eric had
put a big gold star on the map of Arizona, right on
Shadow Mountain, and every time Reynolds looked at
it his mind drew a picture of home. Home. He
thought of the special work of the Navajo for their
homeland and said to himself, "Dinetkak—here is where
Reynolds ended his reveries as he rose abruptly and
started in the direction of Shadow Mountain. "I'm not
going to California, Stan. I want to be free— really
free— to run until my chest hurts and tell time by the
sun!" He broke into a run. "I'm going after my horse."
Stanley followed, partly to humor his younger
brother and because he, too, was exhilarated by the
thought of a chase and capture. Resides, Reynolds
couldn't get the stallion alone.
They hiked until dark to the foot of the huge black
mountain and sat to rest near a clump of yucca. The
white cactus flowers rose like tall candles from their
green candlesticks, lighted by a huge unobstructed
"Fire the gun, Stan, and see if that does any good."
The older boy stood and fired one shot into the air
Then, suddenly, the brushes crackled, and from the
dark shelter of a grove of pinion pine darted a brown
and white mustang into a floodlight of moon on the
"It is my horse!"
With the spirit of his heterogeneous breeding, the
small horse pounded past the boys, who were no less
startled than the stallion. They sprang from the bush
and ran like lizards over stone and brush after the
horse. Stanley, with ready lariat, whirled the rope
above his head and let it fly. It fell neatly around the
horse's neck, tightened, and brought the animal to an
abrupt halt. His forefeet climbed into the air, his
white mane billowed like flames on his neck, and a
frightful whinny sounded against the distant canyon
The horse's captor, who was jerked to the earth,
rolled and turned in the dust with the coarse rope
grinding its way into his hands.
"Mount him, Reynolds, mount him!" Stanley spit
dust as he called to his brother.
The younger boy stealthily approached the raging
horse, speaking gently to him in Navajo. The horse
calmed and eyed him warily, shying only as the small
brown hand touched his flanks. The boy grabbed the
rope, and with a quick leap he slipped onto the animal's
back. No sooner had his legs dangled than the horse
threw back his head and reared up again. Reynolds
grabbed the mane and hugged his body low, hanging
on fiercely. Stanley, who had stood up, brushing off
dust and burrs, pulled the rope toward the trees to
secure the horse. With the feel of a taut rope, the
mustang leaped forward and bucked, sending Stanley
to the ground on his face and pulling the rope from
his raw hands.
Now it was Reynolds alone as the horse galloped
across the open land to the trees, pounding the turf
as he reared to free himself of his small burden. But
the slight boy clung tenaciously to the mane, some-
times nearly slipping off, but righting himself between
bucks. The horse's nostrils flared as he rose again
with forefeet flailing, and the small brown boy slipped
from the perspiration-soaked back of the horse and
thudded to the rocky ground. He was stunned but
still held the rope, and the horse stopped dead as the
noose tightened around his neck. He strained as
Reynolds jumped up quickly and tied him securely
to the tree. Then the boy walked to the horse and
laid his head against the slick white of the animal's
neck. Breathing hard, they silently communicated a
Stanley came running and waving, calling Reynolds
by name. He withheld his awe and admiration with
Indian (and brotherly) aplomb. "Are you hurt?"
"No," said Reynolds, as he turned and fell un-
conscious to the ground.
The older boy looked down into his brother's broad
Navajo face and pressed his ear to his chest. Reynolds
had only fainted, but a nasty cut had opened up on
his head. Stanley parted the thick blackness of his
brother's hair and wiped the wound with his shirt-tail.
"Not too bad, but he will need care."
The horse paced, lifting and rearing to free him-
self of the rope.
"Stay here, szhlee'; you have met your match."
He carried his brother about a half hour before
they reached the hogan they called home. The small
conical dwelling, made primarily of adobe held to-
gether with brush and small logs, looked like an over-
turned dish with a small door and fire hole in the
center. A small woman, dressed in the brightly
colored velvet blouse and heavily gathered skirt of the
Navajo woman, stood at the door and silently mo-
tioned them inside.
As she cleaned the wound with salt water and
juniper berry juice, the boys told of their adventure,
first one and then the other, speaking in animated
tones and gestures. Reynolds lay awake after every-
one had gone to sleep, listening to the soft breathing
of his family and dreaming of tomorrow and the
The next day, just as the sun first hit the red rock
of the canyon, Reynolds was up, dressed, and on his
way, sending several prairie dogs scurrying down
their holes in his haste. He ran awhile and rested, ran
and rested, until at last he reached the pine where
he had tied up the horse the night before. Breathing
hard, with perspiration soaking his headband, he
looked unbelievingly at a four-foot long frayed rope
and a patch of trampled weeds around the tree. Gone
again! Hot tears stung his cheeks as he looked in every
direction for the vagrant horse. Nowhere! Gone, as if
last night had been only a dream! Gone, to roam the
prairie with the coyote, fox, and other wild horses
in the bitter struggle for survival in a desolate land!
Why didn't he want to stay? Why?
Reynolds took the long way home, still looking for
the mustang, running up every rise for a better view
and listening with an ear tuned to nature. Nowhere!
The boy pictured him in a green canyon somewhere
with other wild horses and half of a coarse yucca
rope around his neck. He couldn't blame the horse,
Nobody at home asked him what happened. They
knew. But he thought about the horse all the way
through a plate of fried potatoes and mutton pieces.
That night, the brothers lay awake on the floor of
the hogan. The mother and two small sisters slept
on a mattress on the other side of a small fire pit in
the middle of the round shelter.
"Will you look for the horse next week after I go to
"Why do you think? I'm going back to California
"Wild horses aren't much good to anybody,"
Reynolds x said stoically, bringing up his knee and
kicking Stanley off the rug.
Laughing and rolling over, Stanley called out his
brother's Indian name. "Nas'cha Yez'zi (Little Owl)!"
Their mother turned in her sleep, and the boys froze
on their rugs as- if they were woven in the fabric. O
• One definition of the
word record reads : "To
put in some permanent
form; keep for remem-
brance." Another, "to
set down in writing so
as to keep for future
The messages of the
prophets remind us
that records among
God's people have two
1. To help people de-
velop spiritually and
progress toward immortality and a glorious eternal life.
2. To serve as instruments in the hands of selected
servants of God in judging people under their juris-
Some of the greatest of the prophets were authors
and keepers of the records, including Moses, Samuel,
Isaiah, Nephi, Mormon, Moroni, John, and Paul.
Records through the ages have been lasting com-
munication lines between the Lord's prophets and his
Tips on how
to get the most
out of reports--and make
them work for you
How to U
of records in judging:
". . . and another book
was opened, which was
the book of life; but
the dead were judged
out of those things
which were written in
the books, according to
, their works. . . . And
the book which was the
book of life is the rec-
ord which is kept in
heaven. . . ." (D&C
Thus records have
been important with God's people through the ages
and are important today. They are vital to all who
have positions of leadership in the Church, to help
people in their quest toward eternal life and to assist
in the judgment and judging in the kingdom.
It must always be remembered that records have
never been the goal nor the end product in the Church,
either ancient or restored. Rather, they have served as
tools in the upbuilding of individuals and thereby the
people. Through records people have been lifted to upbuilding of the kingdom of God.
a greater knowledge of the Lord; they have learned
his divine will and his plan and guideposts for journey-
ing on the joyful path that leads back into his presence.
It is important to stress this matter of communica-
tion. With good two-way channels of communication
Records are passive; reports are, or should be, alive
and vibrant. Note one of the definitions of a report:
'An account of something seen, heard, read, done, or
considered." Notice that the verbs are all action words.
Another definition reads: "An account officially ex-
open and functioning, weaknesses may be avoided and pressed, generally in writing."
strong points fortified.
But records are more than lines for lifting us heaven-
ward. That brings us to their second primary purpose:
to serve as instruments in the hands of selected servants
of God in judging people under their jurisdiction.
Reports need to be complete, accurate, legible, neat,
and in on time; and they should provide information
upon which valid decisions can be made. These would
include copies of notes, minutes, statistical and other
reports that are prepared by the clerks and secretaries
To Nephi, the Lord spoke: "For I command all men, and distributed to the administrative officers for study
. . . that they shall write the words which I speak unto and consideration.
them; for out of the books which shall be written I Reports should contain information on factors that
will judge the world, every man according to their will lead to action on the part of the leaders receiving
works, according to that which is written." (2 Ne. them. A report should be in the best possible form
29:11.) for the presentation of the subject matter.
In this dispensation, the Lord has said of the role Reports are to be submitted to and used by the
By Elder Delbert L. Stapley f\
Of the Council of the Twelve : »J
se Records and Reports
administrative officers of the wards and branches, the
stakes and missions throughout the Church. It is the
responsibility of these leaders to see that the reports
are correctly completed.
It is also the responsibility of the presiding authority
in every case to select and train those who will act on
the reports as well as those who will prepare them. A
strong leader knows that if he develops his associates,
he will become even stronger.
Even greater attention will be given by the General
Authorities to the selection of stake administrative offi-
cers and clerks as they are chosen, sustained, and set
apart. The responsibility each has toward the reports
will be stressed at the time of the call. A good leader
inspires other men and women with confidence in him;
a great leader inspires them with confidence in
After proper and prayerful selection, the chosen
stake clerks will train their assistants and they together
will train the secretaries to the priesthood quorums
and auxiliaries, as well as the ward clerks and then-
assistants. The ward clerks in turn will train their
assistants and the secretaries to the Aaronic Priesthood
quorums and the secretaries to the ward auxiliaries.
The better informed these important workers are, the
better jobs they will be able to perform, and time spent
in training these people in the proper functioning of
their work will be rewarded by better reports that will
enable the administrative officers to do a better job.
Good reports spotlight the weak areas requiring
attention and also point up the areas of strength. The
leader can detect whether a unit is progressing or
retrogressing, whether the people under his jurisdiction
are developing spirituality or declining in spirituality.
Accurate reports reveal the direction in which the
organization is going, and emphasis should be placed
constantly on the correct preparation of the reports
and to assure that reports are submitted on or before
the due date. Reports should be reviewed carefully
and comments made in the space provided. This is
the best evidence that the report has been studied and
An able leader uses reports as a mariner uses his
compass : to check the course and to learn the direction
in which he is traveling. Good reports can be the eyes
of the administrators in watching the progress on the
various church fronts that are his responsibility. The
effective leader will study and review reports faithfully.
As he studies good reports, he will see the figures and
statistics come alive, and instead of numbers he may
see that Jack Jones has not been graduated from Pri-
mary as a second class Scout, that he hasn't been or-
dained to the Aaronic Priesthood, nor has he started
to attend MIA meetings.
A well-advised leader can advise his flock well. He
can be specific in complimenting meritorious accom-
plishments and give pinpoint encouragement in in-
stances where improvement can be attained or where
more appropriate ac-
tion is required.
Local leaders should
study the reports dili-
gently. They should
have the facts and fig-
ures at all times. It may
be well to remember
the adage, "Leadership
filters down from the
top; it doesn't bubble
up from the bottom."
With good records
and reports, a leader can evaluate his own performance.
He can compare the performance of his people now
in contrast to a month ago, a year ago, or even two
years ago or longer. Someone has said, "Nothing is
good or bad except by comparison." It is better to be
one's own severest critic and to make comparisons
with himself and his standards rather than with others.
Here are some areas of comparison: The gospel teaches
eternal progression. What progress are the Church
members under my jurisdiction making? What per-
centage of them are attending sacrament meeting now,
compared with a month ago? A year ago? Two years
ago? What percentage of adult members are qualify-
ing for temple recommends? What percentage of mar-
riages are being performed in the temple? In which
direction are we moving in the percentage of our
youth attending seminary or institutes? These are
merely examples; the properly prepared reports will
reveal many other items of importance.
Statistical reports represent the actions of indi-
viduals, and we should ever be mindful that what
matters is our concern with the child of God within
our area of responsibility, and not the figure that rep-
resents him on the report.
There are other important considerations in the lives
of individuals that concern the leader that are not
reflected in the records or reports, but records and
reports are yardsticks we need to use continually for
A leader who leads without using his records and
reports is like a pilot flying without instruments. He
should question the trends shown in the reports and
ask why. Then he can make the necessary moves to
strengthen the situation or situations.
An effective and dedicated leader will set goals for
himself. Once he determines through a study of the
reports where his organization has been going in cer-
tain areas of performance, he can weigh where he
wants to go in helping people grow spiritually.
Through the use of written reports the leader can
review on a month-to-month basis the big picture of
the entire program of the Church, as it seeks to exalt
the individual. Records and reports help the wise
leader to keep the program in proper balance and
In the divine plan of things, the individual is su-
preme. The programs of the Church and the reports
of their functioning are aimed to help each member of
the Church enjoy a more meaningful life here and
hereafter. This will be accomplished as we improve
our lines of communications; a well-informed worker
is a more effective worker.
Reports of the various activities of the Church come
together at the intersection of the bishop's desk. Under
priesthood correlation the bishop becomes more in-
terested in individuals than in programs, even though
the church programs are vitally necessary. He will be
more interested in filling their needs and in helping
them move heavenward than in turning in a favorable
statistical report. He will review the reports in terms
of what the activities in his ward are doing toward
uplifting individuals. He will study the figures as
symbols of souls. He will probe beyond those symbols
and into the lives of the people he has been called to
lead. Good reports will follow good activity; good
reports will reflect the performance of dedicated
A wise bishop will use reports for guidance in his
oral evaluations with priesthood leaders. He will use
reports for his discussions at ward executive and coun-
cil meetings. He will use the records to inquire about
specific families, both the active and the inactive. He
will use the figures to help guide him and his asso-
ciates in making the moves necessary for building souls.
The stake president similarly will want to probe with
his bishops and priesthood leaders beyond the reports.
He will want to know
how each bishop is
meeting the responsi-
bility of planning for
and meeting the needs
of the people in his
ward. Regional Rep-
resentatives of the
Twelve will likewise
inquire how a stake
president is working
with his bishops in
serving his people.
Similarly, General Authorities, as they meet with
Regional Representatives of the Twelve and stake
presidents, will want to learn how programs are help-
But in all this effort to build souls, the time, the
talent, and the energies of the leader will be far more
productive if he studies, interprets, and wisely uses
reports. These records will be more useful to him
if they are accurate, complete, and punctual. The
able leader will therefore choose capable record
keepers. He will see that they are trained and that
they know their duty fully.
Indeed, the first purpose of records and reports is
to help every man and woman to grow through know-
ing Jesus the Christ and in following his plan toward
perfection and eternal life. Moroni, one of the great
recorders in the cause of the Lord, gave this counsel
for all of us as he sealed up his record:
"Yea, come unto Christ, and be perfected, in him,
and deny yourselves of all ungodliness; and if ye shall
deny yourselves of all ungodliness and love God with
all your might, mind and strength, then is his grace
sufficient for you, that by his grace ye may be perfect
in Christ. ..." (Moro. 10:32.)
I pray that the Lord will bless us that we may be
equal to our tasks. O
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Aug. 1969 Era
Dear Mother and Father:
We know what your problem is: one or more
of your adolescent children is in open re-
bellion. Your youngster is showing this
rebellion in behavior so conformist and
stereotyped that we, who may never have met
you, can say how it manifests itself.
His clothes are extreme to the point of
ugliness in style, fit, and color. His best
friends are similarly attired. He "goes ape"
over music that is mind-poundingly loud.
(This does not in any way imply that all youth
who like loud music are rebelling. )
If he is not openly disrespectful to you
and his teachers, he is taciturn and moody
and gives the general impression of having
withdrawn his moral support from you, the
family, the church, and society.
This posture may be more than a pose, be-
cause he may have experimented with drugs and
undergone experiences that have as one of
their effects the altering of attitudes.
Your own attitudes, as you have tried to
work with him, have ranged from anger and
outrage to despair and disbelief. (It can't
be happening to us !)
You may have, now or in the future, the
added pain of an alienation that is not of
your making. If your child is old enough to
leave home, you may not know where he is for
long periods of time. Your magnanimous
avowal, "We will always love you— in sorrow or
joy, " may not keep the door open between you.
As his behavior deviates from that of the
family, he will feel uncomfortable with you
because you represent a conscience he does
not choose to acknowledge. Later, when he
has put behind him the unacceptable conduct,
his low assessment of himself will still con-
stitute a barrier between him and you.
What can you do? In current jargon, keep
your cool ! This seemingly flippant and impu-
dent suggestion comes from someone who has
"been there." And we are willing to expose
ourselves because we believe it may comfort
you to know you are not alone, as we felt we
were when we had our trial by fire.
Our explorations for help within the church
and the community revealed to us that we were
standing on virgin territory. We were like
pioneers in this sociological area. But we
would have willingly foregone that distinc-
tion to have been able to trade places with
another kind of pioneer, the American fron-
tiersman who could see his enemy and come to
grips with the problem of existence on a sim-
ple physical basis. Our foe was much more
elusive. How do you grapple with an evil
that seems to be eating at your spiritual
A grown child of ours had introduced serious
trouble into our home. The jaws of hell were
gaping open to receive us. That was how it
seemed then, and that is how it seems now,
even in restrospect.
Some of the experiences we lived through
would have made plot material for a sensation-
ridden third-rate movie. But we lived through
them. We even survived the down-in-the-depths
rationale: "If our best efforts through all
these years have produced this, there must be
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2. CLASSIC EXPERIENCES &
These marvelous stories were originally
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a fatal flaw in the fabric of our family life. We had better not stay around to jeop-
ardize the chances of our other children."
There were times when we were sure we could not stiffen our spines sufficiently
to merely keep going. But we did, all praise to a loving Father who heard our pleas.
Survival is what we celebrate today. Not victory-yet. So do not ask us what
we did or how we solved our problem. We did the obvious and logical thing that each
moment called for. And the doing largely proved fruitless, except as therapy for
our fevered souls. As someone has said, "The Lord will not impose his will upon those
who will not accept it."
The clue here is that you have an open field of action until his mind is made up.
You may beg, plead, scold, admonish, adjure, urge, beseech, implore, command, en-
treat, and work through all the other verbs that constitute appeal. It will probably
not do much good. It did not produce the results we wanted.
But take heart. In your very real need you have one strong advocate: time— time
to come, the soothing unguent that is smoothed into our wounds by the older and more
experienced when they say, of any problem, "Just give it time. " Not only future but ,
if your living has justified it, time past is also working for you.
How have things been for this child in all the years before the current crisis?
What has been the quality of your family life together? Have you loved your children?
Have you been available to them when they needed you? Have you demonstrated your
love of God by keeping his laws-part icularly those that relate to loving?
Yes? Then you have less to fear than this present anxious period portends. And
then, if the quality of your present and future performance matches the quality of
your past performance, you will have done all you can do and will therefore have
still less to fear. You will enjoy, instead, a measure of peace.
We know a bit more now about rebellion than we did at first. We know it has a season.
And we know that when the season has ended, maturity comes with its mellower attitudes.
We know that, despite alarming symptoms, all but a troubled few do finally mature.
We know a bit more about drugs, too. We would not minimize their danger. To have an-
other youngster of ours experiment with them would be the last thing we would wish for.
It has been almost universally acknowledged that troubled personalities tend to
acquire unhealthy dependencies, such as drug dependencies, which often develop into
addiction. But there is another truth not quite so universally acknowledged.
Many, healthy young people are going to quit using drugs before becoming addicted
simply because the drugs do not produce for them what they want in their lives. They
will usually realize that what they want is a close approximation of what they have
had. Has what they have had been good enough?
This is what we are banking on with our painfully acquired new "cool." We cannot
believe that the immutable laws of justice will permit the aberrant behavior of a
year or two or three to cancel out the good of all the other years. There will be a
turning point. There will be a way back, however long. We are beginning to see
strong evidences of it in young people who have gone the rebellion route and are now
consolidating their losses and becoming mature and responsible adults.
That is the sum of our wishes on the subject. But our experience has taught us
some valuable lessons about parental power-its broad and narrow limits-and we feel
somehow sanctified by those lessons. We are taking great care not to be arrogant
in the use of that power.
We know a little more about love, as well: its resiliencies, its softnesses. We
think we have a better understanding of God's love.
No, Mother and Father, there is not much you can do except endure. We are trying
to endure with some of the humility and grace implied in this quatrain:
They might not need me-but they might. A smile as small as mine might be
I'll let my head be just in sight. Precisely their necessity.
In some of life's extremities, even a hackneyed statement can afford hope : "All
things come to him who waits"-even, perchance, the love of an errant child for his
parents and for his God. . ._
Two Parents Who Are Waiting
August 1969 23
The F^y That Doesn't
Come i n a n Envelope
By Wayne B. Lynn
Illustrated by Don Young
• "Some of your pay will be the heart overflowing, his words were
kind that doesn't come in an enve- recalled again in sweet memory.
lope," the supervisor said. Five The assurance given years before
years later, as I walked through had been realized many times, but
the doors of the holy temple with today was special. To appreciate
this moment, we must go back
more than five years to a teacher
struggling within himself to decide
whether a seminary assignment
should be accepted in lieu of em-
ployment offering greater financial
advantage. Perhaps the intimation
of "the kind of pay that doesn't
come in an envelope" tipped the
scales toward a decision in favor of
the seminary assignment.
Events leading up to this beauti-
ful experience in the temple began
on one of those days when my mood
matched the dismal weather out-
side. That day, a sharp wind was
carrying bits of paper and debris
in a snake-like procession down the
trash-strewn alley and past the
doorstep, where it lodged in an ugly
pile against the woven wire fence.
Skies overhead were dark and
threatening, and to me the whole
world seemed gloomy.
I stood looking out the spattered
kitchen windows, where a light
rain made small wet spots that
were quickly blown over with loose
dirt. Even the dirty windows
matched my darkened feeling. This
was ,not a good way to feel, and T
battled against it. Moving to the
desert sands of Arizona was a
change in itself from the green
mountains and water-filled streams
of the section of Wyoming that was
home to me.
Released-time seminary had been
granted there that year for the first
time, and President William E.
Berrett counseled the local brethren
to commence immediately holding
Time did not permit the construc-
tion of a building. The first day
of seminary, classes were held in
a Boy Scout bus parked on the
vacant lot that hopefully was to
be the site for our new building.
Those who have traveled with
young boys can imagine the condi-
tion of the bus— a somewhat differ-
ent situation from the commodious
classrooms and office to which 1
had been accustomed.
Forces of opposition seemed to
battle our every step in trying to
rent a building for seminary pur-
poses. Houses were promised, only
to be withdrawn when pressures
from outside sources became too
great. The second week of school
had commenced before we suc-
ceeded in renting a small frame
house— a very humble dwelling next
to the alley and opposite the high
school. Kitchen cupboards soon be-
came library shelves; cabinets were
full of student journals; the small
living room became our classroom;
the single bedroom became an of-
fice; and a duplicator was pre-
cariously perched on a bathroom
shelf. We stacked paper supplies
in the bathtub with fingers crossed,
hopeful that no one would turn on
In the town, rumors and contro-
versy, surrounded by exaggeration
and misunderstanding, greeted our
new program of released-time semi-
nary. Although efforts were made
to calm troubled waters, little was
added to the popularity of the new
seminary teacher who had become
a symbol of the controversy.
So here I stood at a spattered
window, looking out at the clouded
skies and trash-filled alley and ask-
ing myself if it was worth it.
My reflections were short-lived,
however, as a group of energetic
students soon arrived and began
crowding into the improvised class-
room. Chairs were rapidly filled,
and little space was left for the
Knowing that a teacher must be
happy in order to succeed with his
class, I cast off my gloomy spell
and launched into the lesson with
as much enthusiasm as I could pos-
sibly muster. I was rewarded with
appreciative interest and participa-
tion by most of the students— that is
to say, all of them except the back
row of senior boys, who leaned
back in their chairs and issued an
unspoken challenge for any teacher
to reach them.
Following class discussion, I gave
a reading assignment in their text,
the Book of Mormon. The boys on
the back row were slow to open
their books, and I noted that one
did not respond at all. His book lay
unopened on the arm shelf of his
chair while he looked at me as if
to say, "Just try to make me like
My gloomy mood returned in
spite of myself, and I again asked
myself, "Is it worth it?" Then I
made a very conscious resolve. That
young man with the unopened
book, whom I will call Jim, would
answer this question for me. "All
right, Jim, old kid," I said to my-
self, "you will be my measuring
stick. I won t give you any special
attention above other students, but
I will use you as a gauge of my
success or failure. If I fail to reach
you, then I will have the answer to
my question." This unspoken pledge
was important to me in the days
that followed, but it was pushed to
the back of my mind with the press
of everyday tasks.
Classes continued, and our old
building began to be looked upon
with tolerance and growing fond-
ness in spite of its inconvenience.
In the meantime, a conference
with the high school principal pro-
vided me with insight into the
challenges I faced with some of my
students. I was particularly con-
cerned about the senior boys. When
I mentioned Jim's name, the reac-
tion was electric.
"Let me show you something,"
the principal said, stepping to his
After a brief pause he pulled
Jim's file from a drawer, opened it,
and began reading a few comments
that had been submitted by various
teachers: "Drunk and disorderly at
the school dance." "Profane and
abusive language directed at the
teacher." "Disrespectful and rebel-
lious toward authority."
"I would like to see you reach
that kid!" was the principal's com-
ment, and I wondered again at the
task I had set for myself.
As weeks passed, I became much
closer to my students, and strong
bonds of friendship were formed
through spiritual experiences we
shared in class. Then, several
months after the beginning of
school, I almost unconsciously be-
came aware of some changes in
Jim's attitude. The book on his
desk, which had long remained un-
opened, was finally being opened
and read with interest. He began
to ask questions and participate in
Several little incidents reflected
Jim's change in attitude, but one
stands out above the rest. It was
the day we talked about conten-
tions. Our lesson was structured
around the counsel given by the
"For verily, verily I say unto you,
he that hath the spirit of contention
is not of me, but is of the devil, who
is the father of contention, and he
stirreth up the hearts of men to con-
tend with anger, one with another."
(3 Ne. 11:29.)
I previously arranged with one
sometimes-rowdy student to assist
me with an object lesson demon-
strating bad feelings we have when
there is a spirit of contention. With
my permission, he deliberately
came into class late, banged down
his books, and sprawled out in his
seat without apology.
In anger I snapped at him,
"What's the big idea? Why are you
late? I don't like vour attitude one
Indignantly he shouted back,
"Well, I didn't ask to take this
I retorted in kind, "Well, we can
get along without you!" Whereupon
he gathered up his books and
angrily stomped out of the room.
A quietness filled the classroom
until Jim's spontaneous comment
broke the silence, "Oh, for Pete's
sake, Harold, come back here and
act your age!"
We had a lot of fun that day
bringing Harold back into class and
reestablishing order. We talked
about how terrible we felt when
there was a spirit of contention in
the class, but the thing we most
remembered was Jim's comment
and his obvious desire to be a part
of a good seminary class.
Skies seemed brighter after that
day. My days would often be easier
when I would overhear comments
by students, such as, "Have you no-
ticed the change in Jim lately? The
boys he buddies around with say
he won't even take a drink any-
One day a senior boy lingered
behind after class and said, "I have
something to tell you that you might
be interested in. You know, part
of my home teaching assignment is
to go with my companion to Jim's
house. Well, the other night when
we were there my senior companion
was talking to Jim's parents, and the
old subject of taking time from
school for seminary came up again.
Jim's mother rather forcefully said,
'I'm against it myself; I don't think
they should mix church and school.'
Then she turned to Jim and asked,
'What do you think, Jim?' Jim
looked at her and said, 'Mother, it
is the greatest desire of my heart to
become a seminary teacher.' His
mother nearly fell out of her chair!"
Jim never spoke to me about any
of this, but his humble spirit told
me much more than words could
express. His decision to live accord-
ing to the Lord's way was also a
strong influence on his friends who
followed his example. There was
even talk about Jim's desiring to. fill
a mission. Students told me that he
had decided to attend college for
one year, preparing himself to serve
the Lord as a missionary.
The following winter I received
a letter from Jim, who was away
from home attending the university.
By that time we had moved into a
beautiful new seminary building,
located on the same spot where we
had parked the bus only a year
before. We had left our rented
house near the alley with an emo-
Jim's letter brought a lump to my
throat : "I don't know how to thank
you. . . ." He poured out the feel-
ings of his heart in a way that he
had been unable to do in person.
Wayne B. Lynn of the Orem (Utah) 29th Ward is seminary curriculum coordi-
nator for Lamanites throughout the Church and serves on a Church Lamanite
lesson writing committee.
"I have come a long way," he con-
tinued. "I watched you all year and
waited for you to make a mistake."
This frightened me! Then came his
request; "I don't know if they have
told you, but next month I leave for
my mission. Will you speak at my
Today as I drove through the
early morning darkness to the tem-
ple, my thoughts returned to Jim.
I thought about the mission he had
honorably filled, and the sweet
young girl he was about to marry.
I thought about all the other young-
sters who had presented such a
challenge and had become so spe-
cial to me. My soul filled with
warmth as I remembered that every
senior boy that year had now com-
pleted an honorable mission for the
Church. Many were married, as Jim
was being married today, in the
house of the Lord. They were fine
young men, and I felt toward them
as Helaman did toward the fine
young men with whom he asso-
ciated; and like him, I called them
The temple ceremony was beauti-
ful. Clothed in white, the couple
knelt at the altar and exchanged
vows of eternal love and devotion.
As I walked from this beautiful
house of God, I tasted of the fruit
of being a teacher. I had taken a
large bite of "the kind of pay that
doesn't come in an envelope," and
it was delicious. O
By Marel Brown
We mutely watch machines cut rich, red earth;
We hold our breath, as fire consumes our trees;
We close our eyes and see, in fresh rebirth,
Those dreams we planted, in rich memories.
And now, with roots of dreams laid bare and dry —
The ground itself consumed by roads of change —
We bravely stand, while progress stings each eye,
And stifle anguished cries at wheels' full range.
Yet none there are in all the workman's crew
Who sense how deep the scrape cuts spirit-flesh;
None stays a hand, nor stops what he must do;
Each shift of gears lays other wounds afresh.
Not strange — for who could share our muted scream
Who has not felt a blade uproot a dream!
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New Evidence from
( Conclusion )
Lucy Mack Smith
By Dr. Richard Lloyd Anderson
Illustrated by Lynn Freeman
• The first believers in the Book of
Mormon were members of Joseph
Smith's family. But if three of the
eight witnesses were Smiths and the
remaining ones in the Whitmer
group, it does not follow that family
relationship explains away their
testimony. The truth of the Book
of Mormon story is better attested
by those who knew its events per-
sonally than by strangers to these
proceedings. Including married
partners, the Smiths and Whitmers
comprised about two dozen adults,
none of whom expressed less than
complete faith in the genuineness
of the translation process.
Like the resurrection appearances
of the New Testament, there are
unofficial witnesses surrounding
those more formally designated.
Mother Whitmer reported seeing
the plates, and Mother Smith de-
scribed handling two of the ancient
objects found with the plates. Two
others reported their physical im-
pressions of handling the ancient
record while it was wrapped in a
protective covering. Emma, Joseph's
wife, felt the thin edges of the
record as she moved it in dusting, 1
and Joseph's brother William both
felt its shape and lifted the record,
estimating the weight at about
sixty pounds. 2
The three Smiths who formally
gave their names as seeing and
handling the plates were the
Prophet's father, Joseph Smith, Sr.;
the Prophet's immediately older
brother, Hyrum; and his immedi-
ately younger brother, Samuel Har-
rison.' They sometimes joined the
other Book of Mormon witnesses to
reaffirm their testimony printed in
the 1830 edition of the Book of
Mormon regarding lifting and turn-
ing the leaves of the plates. After
quoting the published statements of
the three and eight witnesses, and
describing the experience of the lat-
ter group, Lucy Smith relates, "The
ensuing evening, we held a meeting,
in which all the witnesses bore
testimony to the facts as stated
above. . . .'"'' Two years later, in the
period of dynamic preaching of the
early elders, a conference was held
near Cleveland, Ohio, remembered
by Luke Johnson as follows ■ "At this
conference the eleven witnesses to
the Book of Mormon, with uplifted
hands, bore their solemn testimony
to the truth of that book, as did
also the Prophet Joseph." 4
A study of the Smith witnesses
must stress deeds more than words.
Modest and unaffected, these men
left few formal statements, but
above all they lived consistently
with their commitment to Christian
principles and modern revelation.
Although not parading their printed
testimony, they personally sacri-
ficed for their convictions. Their
sincerity is powerful evidence for
the existence of the Book of Mor-
mon plates and more. The father
and the two brothers nearest
Joseph's age constantly lived and
worked with him, and from this
intimate vantage point completely
accepted his report of his visions.
Hyrum and Samuel Smith had
joined the Presbyterian Church
with their mother, who later re-
lated the visit of a church commit-
tee to persuade them to abandon
their convictions about the Book
of Mormon then being printed. The
chief spokesman believed that
"Joseph never had the plates," and
asked Hyrum if he did not think
himself deceived. The witness an-
swered simply, "No sir, I do not."
After unsatisfactory attempts to
break down his story, similar ques-
tions were directed to Samuel, who
defied his interrogators with scrip-
ture about false shepherds."' Local
church records confirm the conver-
sation, since they refer to the visit
of the committee, which reported
that they "received no satisfaction"
from talking with Lucy, Hyrum,
and Samuel Smith. 6 The result was
suspension from Presbyterian mem-
bership, a symptom of the ostracism
inflicted by their community for
their faith in the Book of Mormon.
In the face of ridicule and intimi-
dation, the 22-year-old Samuel
Smith took copies of the new scrip-
ture to neighboring regions of
western New York right after the
Church was organized in April
1830. Phineas Young later recalled
the blend of humility and conviction
with which the Prophet's younger
brother presented the Book of Mor-
mon. Without introduction, Samuel
handed a book to Phineas with the
request that he read it. Finding that
it claimed to be a revelation,
Phineas took the book from Samuel,
"and by his request looked at the
testimony of the witnesses." The
missionary then promised his inves-
tigator a witness from God if he
would read the book prayerfully.
Upon agreeing that he would,
Phineas asked the name of the mis-
sionary, who only then identified
himself as Samuel H. Smith. Young
reported the closing words of this
conversation: " 'Ah,' said I, 'You are
one of the witnesses.' 'Yes,' said he,
'I know the book to be a revelation
from God, translated by the gift and
power of the Holy Ghost, and that
my brother Joseph Smith, Jr., is a
Prophet, Seer and Revelator.' " 7
It is doubtful whether anyone
exceeded Samuel Smith's record of
active missionary service during the
earliest years of the latter-day
Church. Moving with the Saints
to Ohio in 1831, he left a character-
istically concise record of a two-
month mission with Reynolds
Cahoon in the counties around
Cleveland, in which he summarized
his own preaching: "I spoke of the
testimony which the Lord had
given to the people of this genera-
tion of his work, the fulness of the
gospel, his everlasting covenant,
and bore testimony of these
things." 8 Scores of converts ac-
cepted the personal assurance of
this plain-spoken youth who had
known the events of the restoration
from the beginning.
Samuel Smith's best-documented
mission is one mentioned in the
Doctrine and Covenants, which in-
structed him and Orson Hyde to
"take their journey into the eastern
countries, and proclaim the things
which I have commanded them.'"'
Both men kept journals indicating
that the presentation and testimony
of the Book of Mormon was one of
the major themes of their preaching.
The witness was ridiculed periodi-
cally for his simple reiteration of
his testimony: "The people gath-
ered around us and asked a great
many questions about the plates,
etc., and many of them used much
lightness." 1 " Daniel Tyler was con-
verted as a result of this mission and
later recalled the missionary visit
to Erie County, Pennsylvania:
"In the spring of 1832, Elders
Samuel H. Smith and Orson Hyde
. . . came to our neighborhood and
held a few meetings. Elder Smith
read the 29th chapter of Isaiah at
the first meeting and delineated the
circumstances of the coming forth
of the Book of Mormon, of which
he said he was a witness. He knew
his brother Joseph had the plates,
for the prophet had shown them to
him, and he had handled them and
seen the engravings thereon. His
speech was more like a narrative
than a sermon." 11
Anyone who studies the person-
ality of Samuel H. Smith must
admit that he is not likely to have
invented such testimony. A dutiful
son, loyal brother, and kindly
father, his life is the essence of sin-
cerity. Of sufficient capacity to be
named to the first high council of
the Church in 1834, and be elected
by his fellow councilors as president
in 1837, yet Samuel was not ambi-
tious. When not in arduous mis-
sionary service, he farmed or hired
out as a laborer. In Nauvoo he was
named a bishop and was elected a
city alderman. This public success
marks a deep respect for him based
on his character, not cleverness. His
missionary companion called him "a
man slow of speech and unlearned,
yet a man of good faith and ex-
treme integrity." 1 " His patriarch-
father blessed him as "loved of the
Lord" because of his "faithfulness
and truth." 1 ' 5 Samuel H. Smith's
inner motivation is best revealed in
the minutes of an early speech, indi-
cating that "ever since he had set
out to serve the Lord he had con-
cluded not to regard the favor of
man but the favor of heaven." 14
The consistency of his testimony
and the evident honesty of the man
sustain the reality of his experience
of handling the plates.
The same may be said of the
Prophet's father for similar reasons.
A deeply religious and humble
man, Joseph Smith, Sr., was not a
person who exaggerated his worth.
One of his few personal statements
was recorded at the crest of his
service to the Church, his intense
patriarchal ministry of giving bless-
ings at Kirtland. One meets the
man himself in this address to his
family, just prior to blessing them
in 1834. Although he had always
held family scripture reading and
"Young Joe (as we
called him then). ..was
a good worker; they
were.. . poor people"
prayer, he referred to his earlier
life when the Smiths were unable
to agree on the validity of any
"I have not always set that ex-
ample before my family that I
ought. I have not been diligent in
teaching them the commandments
of the Lord, but have rather mani-
fested a light and trifling mind.
But in all this I have never denied
the Lord. Notwithstanding all this
my folly, which has been a cause
of grief to my family, the Lord has
often visited me in visions and in
dreams, and has brought me, with
my family, through many afflic-
tions, and I this day thank his holy
One so truthful about himself
would not likely be a party to a
religious hoax. Joseph Smith, Sr.,
was a practical man who never
aspired to public acclaim. He had
brief careers in teaching and busi-
ness, but he worked with his hands
most of. his life as a cooper or
farmer. His candid modesty en-
deared him to all those who ever
had intimate contact with him. His
wife characterized him "an affec-
tionate companion and tender
father, as ever blessed the confi-
dence of a family." 16 Edward
Stevenson voiced the impression of
many a member of the Church:
"Naturally Father Smith was not a
man of many words, but sober-
minded, firm, mild and impres-
sive." 17 Joseph Smith, Jr., considered
him "a great and a good man," pos-
sessing an "exalted, and virtuous
mind." These phrases and the fol-
lowing assessment come from a son
who knew his father's life as few
individuals could: "I now say that
he never did a mean act, that might
be said was ungenerous in his life,
to my knowledge." 18 If those near-
est Joseph Smith, Sr., could in-
variably rely on his personal good-
ness and strict integrity, his printed
testimony of seeing and handling
the plates may not lightly be
The mainstay of those without
facts is ridicule. Obviously a genera-
tion whose pious sensibilities were
shocked by the Mormon claim of
new revelation would not allow the
Smith family their just due as hon-
est individuals. So to take certain
vindictive testimonials as historical
fact is the height of irresponsibility.
In 1833 one D. P. Hurlbut (his own
spelling) forfeited his LDS mem-
bership on the ground of unre-
pentant adultery. 19 Turning from
missionary for the new revelations
to lecturer against them, he was
employed by an anti-Mormon com-
mittee in Ohio to gather material
to "completely divest Joseph Smith
of all claims to the character of an
honest man," 20 a quest with obvious
implications for the father and
brothers of the Prophet. Whether
Hurlbut himself had the integrity
to record accurate statements may
be doubted. Leading Mormons of
the time insisted that his reputation
was so notoriously tattered that his
work had to be published by the
more reputable but equally bitter
E. D. Howe, who said in a later
interview that "Hurlburt was al-
ways an unreliable fellow. . . " 21
Non-Mormon writers have ad-
mitted the need to treat the Hurl-
but-Howe affidavits with extreme
caution, because they were "col-
lected by one hostile individual
whose style of composition stereo-
types the language of numerous
witnesses." 22 This is apparent in the
main thrust of every Palmyra-Man-
chester affidavit printed by Howe.
Stock phrases allege that the Smith
men were "lazy" and "indolent,"
having the "general employment" of
"money digging." "They were a
family that labored very little," so
"their great object appeared to be to
live without work"; consequently,
it was "a mystery to their neigh-
bors how they got their living." 23
Such phrases are historically
meaningless and merely brand the
source as unreliable. From the
memoirs of Lucy, Joseph, and
William Smith, verified by later
recollections of non-Mormon neigh-
bors and even census reports at
the time, it is known that the fam-
ily was highly industrious. Their
practical dependability is shown by
merely listing their economic activi-
ties in western New York from 1818
to 1828, which included the fol-
(1) Purchasing a hundred acres
of densely forested land on install-
ments and clearing substantial por-
tions with hand tools.
(2) Building a moderately large
log dwelling, followed by a frame
house, farm buildings, and exten-
(3) Raising wheat as a main
crop, and caring for 1,500 sugar-
producing trees by gathering the
sap and processing sugar and
( 4 ) Extensive manufacturing
(mainly by Joseph Smith, Sr. ) of
coopering products, including bas-
kets and birch brooms.
(5) Supplementing income by
regular hiring out as laborers and
selling refreshments to crowds on
This factual reconstruction of the
real activities of the Smith men
in Palmyra-Manchester is supple-
mented by the recollections of
neighbors who directly contradicted
the Hurlbut- Ho we testimonials.
One clearly in a position to know
was Orlando Saunders, who was
born two years before the Prophet
and worked by the side of the
Smith men on the nearby farm
owned by his father, Enoch Saun-
ders, whose death in 1825 trans-
ferred the property to Orlando.
Fortunately, this man was later
interviewed by both believers and
unbelievers in the claims of the
Smith family, and he told the same
Reorganized LDS Interview
"[T]hey have all worked for me
many a day; they were very good
people. Young Joe (as we called
him then) . . . was a good worker;
they all were. . . . [T]hey were poor
people. . . ." 24
"Orlando Sanders . . . tells us that
the .Smith family worked for his
father and for himself. He gives
them the credit of being good
workers, but declares that they
could save no money." 25
As already mentioned, on several
public occasions Joseph Smith, Sr.,
reiterated his witness of the plates
of the Book of Mormon. His private
testimony is also a matter of his-
tory. Maliciously imprisoned for
debt by resentful townsmen, he was
offered freedom for renouncing the
Book of Mormon but instead ac-
cepted four days' starvation and 30
days' imprisonment, a fair test of his
sincerity. 2 " An interview with him
about this time was reported from
memory some forty years later.
Though filled with inaccuracies ( as
having Joseph instead of Martin
Harris take the characters to New
York), this 1870 recollection re-
ported that the Prophet's father
discussed the weight, dimensions,
and appearance of the plates in
detail. 27 The power of his personal
conviction may be measured by the
fact that Joseph Smith, Sr., per-
suaded his parents and most of his
brothers of the truth of the new
revelation. The impact of his first
visit was later related by George A.
"Some time in August, 1830, my
uncle Joseph Smith and Don Carlos
Smith came some two hundred and
fifty miles from where the Prophet
was residing in Ontario County,
New York, and they brought a
Book of Mormon with them. I had
never seen them before, and I felt
astonished at their sayings." 28
The unsophisticated honesty of
Joseph Smith, Sr., and Samuel H.
Smith is mirrored in the sensitive
reliability of the Prophet's older
brother Hyrum. Somewhat better
educated than the rest of his
brothers, and a man of marked
executive ability, he gave distin-
guished service from the organiza-
tion of the Church until his
martyrdom a decade and a half
later. In the year when he became
a Book of Mormon witness he was
an independent farmer of 29 with
a wife and two children. He was
respected by his neighbors, for he
served as school trustee in his lo-
cality in 1828. -" Elected to this
office in the local school district, he
with two other trustees managed
school affairs and funds, including
hiring of teachers.
The complete dedication of the
Prophet's older brother to the re-
stored Church separated him from
further success in non-Mormon so-
ciety. But the power of his leader-
ship was felt in the Mormon
community as a missionary, temple
builder, migration captain, civic
leader, patriarch, and official coun-
selor to his Prophet-brother for
about seven years, culminating in
his appointment as assistant presi-
dent in closest relationship to
Joseph Smith in directing the
Church. No early LDS leader is
spoken of in warmer terms than
Hyrum Smith. After traveling with
him as a missionary, Orson Hyde
described Hyrum as "a pleasant and
an agreeable companion, a wise
Hyrum Smith, painted in 1842 by Sutcliffe Maudsley
counselor, a father and a guide." 7,0
The Prophet spontaneously picked
two qualities that compelled love
for his brother: "the integrity of a
Job, and in short, the meek and
quiet spirit of Jesus Christ. . . ." 31
The numerous comments about this
Book of Mormon witness generally
allude to these dual qualities of
honesty and kindness. The candid
John Taylor found no flaw: "If
ever there was an exemplary, hon-
est, and virtuous man, an embodi-
ment of all that is noble in the
human form, Hyrum Smith was its
One this impressive cannot be
ignored when he insists that he was
not deceived in examining and lift-
ing the Book of Mormon plates. And
his descriptions follow the same
pattern of consistency of all other
witnesses. A brother-in-law of
Hyrum Smith, the educated Joseph
Fielding, talked personally to the
witness's wife and reported in
1841: "My sister bears testimony
that her husband has seen and
handled the plates. . . ." 33 A speech
of 1844 was recalled by the capable
Angus Cannon: "When I was but
ten years of age, I heard the testi-
mony of the Patriarch Hyrum
Smith, one of the eight witnesses,
to the divinity of the Book of Mor-
mon and the appearance of the
plates from which it was trans-
lated. " 3A A public declaration of
this witness in Salem, Massa-
chusetts (perhaps 1836), was re-
membered in 1843 and printed by a
non-Mormon newspaper editor:
"We have seen Hiram Smith, a
brother of Jos., and heard him
preach, and conversed with him
about his religion, its origin and
progress; and we heard him de-
clare, in this city in public, that
what is recorded about the plates,
&c. &c. is God's solemn truth." 35
As stated, the essence of the
Smiths' witness to the Book of Mor-
mon plates is deeds, not words. The
constancy of faithful sacrifice for
their testimonies places a force upon
their original and reiterating state-
ments that no amount of eloquence
may produce. The supernatural
power of the angel's visit to the
three witnesses finds its physical
foundation in the fact that eight
ordinary men insisted all of their
lives that they had carefully exam-
ined and handled the ancient plates
of the Book of Mormon. That
practical reality is further rein-
forced by the sacrifice of their lives
by the Smiths who handled the
plates. Worn out by middle-aged
privation for the cause of the
restoration, Joseph Smith, Sr., died
of a severe lung condition a year
after the Mormon expulsion from
Missouri. 30 The strain of a danger-
ous horseback ride in an attempt
of Samuel to reach his brothers
before their murder and the shock
of their deaths brought fatal sick-
ness to this last-surviving witness of
the Smiths, who died a month
later. 37 With his beloved Prophet-
brother, Hyrum earlier faced the
guns of a murderous mob in his
last moments. And it is clear that
his martyrdom meant exactly to
Hyrum what the Latter-day Saints
made of it. Interviews with the
prison companions of Joseph and
Hyrum were the basis of historical
details that Hyrum read portions
of the Book of Mormon the night
before the martyrdom, and the next
day he bore testimony of the coming
forth of the Book of Mormon. 38
There is a striking parallel be-
tween the earlier Missouri imprison-
ment and that of Illinois. In the
former case, Hyrum Smith de-
scribed why he was willing to make
such a sacrifice. This statement
without doubt is also Hyrum' s ex-
planation of the meaning to him
of his final sacrifice of life itself:
"Having given my testimony to
the world of the truth of the Book
of Mormon, . . . and the establish-
ment of the Kingdom of Heaven,
in these last days; and having been
brought into great afflictions and
distresses for the same, I thought
that it might be strengthening to
my beloved brethren, to give them
a short account of my sufferings,
for the truth's sake, and the state of
my mind and feelings, while under
circumstances of the most trying
and afflicting nature. . . .
'[I] had been abused and thrust
into a dungeon ... on account of my
faith. . . . However, I thank God
By Evalyn M. Sandberg
Man's thrusts in space, though they engender awe,
are nothing, held against ivhat Moses saw—-
and we through him, because he was disposed
to keep a record of ivhat God disclosed.
And Abraham's holiness also provided
a glimpse of all that God's great hands have guided,
from Kolob, situated near his throne,
to Kokob (star) and Olea (the moon).
Oh, earlij seers, ive're so much in your debt!
This pearl you left illumines darkness yet,
and any facts that are or yet will be
cam but confirm what God lets prophets see.
If youre smart enough
to know how little you know
« -ito I'm ;m. wu
i mmmwm-w wmmmwmm wm www ®:$m®m
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m«tMm'JS*&m.si* mwwm m m. :»
m mmm m ats
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AT BENNETT'S DEALERS
that I felt a determination to die,
rather than deny the things which
my eyes had seen, which my hands
had handled, and which I had
born testimony to, wherever my lot
had been cast; and I can assure my
beloved brethren that I was enabled
to bear as strong a testimony, when
nothing but death presented itself,
as ever I did in my life." i!> O
interview of Joseph Smith III with Emma
Smith, cit. Saints' Herald, Vol. 26 (1879), pp.
289-90. Quotations in this article are only
modified in regard to spelling and punctuation.
2 Sermon of William Smith, cit. Saints' Her-
ald, Vol. 31 (1884), pp. 643-44.
3 Lucy Smith, Biographical Sketches of Joseph
Smith the Prophet (Liverpool, 1853), p. 141.
*Dcscret News, May 26, 1858.
"'Lucy Smith, op. cit., p. 147.
"Palmyra Presbyterian Session Records, Vol.
2, Mar. 10, 1830. Cf. Richard Lloyd Anderson.
"Circumstantial Confirmation of the First 'Vi-
sion Through Reminiscences," BYU Studies,
Vol. 9 (Spring, 1969), pp. 390-91.
"Autobiography of Phineas Young, also cit.
Dcseret News, Feb. 3, 1858.
^Missionary record of Samuel Smith, LDS
Church Historian's Office.
"D&C 87:3 (1835 ed.), 75:13 (current ed.).
"'Journal of Samuel H. Smith, Sept. 15, 1832.
"Daniel Tyler, "Incidents of Experience,"
Scraps of Biographt/, Faith-Promoting Scries,
Vol. 10 (Salt Lake City, 1883), p. 23.
'-Autobiography of Orson Hyde; also cit.
Dcseret News, May 5, 1858.
'■'Patriarchal Rlessing Rook 1, cit. Ruby K.
Smith, Mart) Bailcii (Salt Lake City, 1954), p.
"Far West Record typescript, Oct. 25, 1831.
'"■Patriarchal Rlessing Rook 1, p. 1.
"\Lucy Smith, op. cit., p. 162.
17 "In Early Days," Juvenile Instructor, Vol.
29 (1894), p. 552.
ls Ms., History of the Church, Aug. 22, 1842;
also cit. Joseph Smith, History of The Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter-dai/ Saints ( Salt Lake
City, 1909), Vol. 5, pp. 125-26 ( hereinafter
'"Cf. ibid., Vol. 1, pp. 352-55, and Times
and Seasons, Vol. 6 (1845), pp. 784-85.
•^Painesville [Ohio] Telegraph, Jan. 31, 1834.
-'Ellen E. Dickinson, New Light on Mormon-
ism (New York, 1885), p. 73.
--Whitney R. Cross, The Burned-Over District
(Ithaca, 1950, 1965), pp. 141-42.
- 3 E. D. Howe, Mormonism Unvailed (Paines-
ville, Ohio, 1834), pp. 262, 232, 251, 260, 249.
^Interview with William H. Kellev, Saints
Herald, Vol. 28 (1881), p. 165.
-■"•Frederic G. Mather, "The Early Days of
Mormonism," Lippincott's Magazine, Vol. 26
(1880), p. 198.
^Lucy Smith, op. cit., p. 165.
-"Interview of Fayette Lapham, The Histori-
cal Magazine, Vol. 7 (2d ser., 1870), p. 305 ff.
2s Discourse of George A. Smith, Aug. 2, 1857,
Salt Lake City, Journal of Discourses (London,
1858), Vol. 5, p. 103.
2!) Lucy Smith, op. cit., p. 128.
:,0 Hyde, op. cit.
•'"The text follows the Kirtland Manuscript
History of Warren Parrish, also cit. DHC, Vol.
2, p. 338.
S *DHC, Vol. 7, p. 107. Cf. p. 54.
■■"Letter of Joseph Fielding to Parley P. Pratt,
June 20, 1841, Preston, England, cit. L.D.S.
Millennial Star, Vol. 2 (1841), p. 52.
34 Salt Lake Stake Historical Record, Jan. 25,
:c 'Salem [Mass.] Advertiser and Argus, April
12, 1843; also cit. Times and Seasons, Vol. 1
(1840), pp. 172ff.
"'Funeral sermon of Robert B. Thompson,
Sept. 15, 1840, Times and Seasons, Vol. 1
(1840), pp. 172ff.
■' !7 See the contemporary description evidently
originating from Lucy Smith,- in the letter of
H. Herringshaw to William Smith, Aug. 28,
1844, Nauvoo, 111., cit. The Prophet, Sept. 21,
1844. Cf. Lucy Smith, op. cit., p. 278.
™DHC, Vol. 6, pp. 600, 610.
"'■'General letter of Hyrum Smith, December
1839, Commerce, 111., Times and Seasons, Vol.
1 (1839), pp. 20, 23.
By Maxine Clayton Greenwood
How limited my ivorld becomes
When fog enfolds me close
Within its isolating coldness.
The paths ivell-known are lost to
I cannot see to follow
In the footsteps of another.
I am my ivorld.
How limited my heart becomes
When fog of pride, indifference.
And prejudice enshrouds my
The virtues of my brother,
His hopes, the heights that he
Are lost to me.
I am my world.
But I am a child of God;
Within are depths of under-
Love, compassion —
Untapped, untried, until
My brother becomes
Remember when summer was synonymous with sandpiles?
Remember when the "school's out" shout meant long weeks hanging
around the house, building tents in the yard, playing dolls in the orchard?
It was Little League ball games and dancing lessons in the neighbor's base-
ment . . . lemonade stands . , . berry picking . . . exploring the local hills. -*-
Marion D. Hanks, Editor
Elaine Cannon, Associate Editor
You've done a lot to change all that.
You've grown up.
And now in the middle of summer you are caught up in the wonderful
world of a mobile generation.
You're on the move. You go — here, there, and across the seas. You
ride and sail and sightsee. It may be just for fun. Or if you're one of the
lucky ones, you work some, too.
Era of Youth
It's so busy you're breathless.
But in the middle of summer, in the midst of it all, there ought to be time
enough to think about where it is you really are going and how you are
getting there and what you'll be like when you arrive at your goal.
There are ways to set your sail . . . ways to have smoother sailing . . .
ways to get into the current but not lost at sea.
That's what this issue is all about. The Editors
/ i —
Sailing is a great sport. But there are
rules that make sailing safer and
smoother. According to the Keith M.
Engar family, they are the same kinds
of rules that apply to living one's life.
Set up the mast.
Set up the rudder.
Lower the center board for stability.
Raise the sail.
Steer in the right direction so the
sail catches the wind for GO power.
Duck the boom.
Watch for rough water, stormy skies.
Sail with care today so you can
sail tomorrow, too !
; . ..,,, ._. ■,,,:■,
"In the beginning ..."
Now that's a scriptural phrase to turn a -teen's imagination!
When young people consider moon landings and space flights, they
wonder how it would be. There is no swifter or surer transportation than
the wings of imagination, and by this means five Latter-day Saint stu-
dents had the jaunt of their lives wearing borrowed Air Force jump suits
to an abandoned gravel pit. It was only play acting, but for these five who
simulated a trip to the moon, it was real enough to stir up profound em-
pathy with today's heroic astronauts.
Somebody remembered reading Dr. Henry Eyring's statement in an
issue of the Era of Youth: "Contemplating the awe-inspiring order in
the universe, extending from the almost infinitely small to the infinitely
large, one is overwhelmed with its grandeur and with the limitless wis-
dom which conceived, created, and governs it all. Our understanding,
great as it sometimes seems, can be nothing but wide-eyed wonder of the
child when measured against omniscience. ..."
And so we go on our fantasy trip to the moon, and we tell it as we
think it would be.
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By Carroll S. Karch
You've done it! Lucky you! You've reached that magical day you thought
would never come when, a little nervously at first, you zipped through written
quizzes and wheeled through road tests to win that freeway permit, that King
of the Road passport, your first driver's license! Perhaps you even have your
own wheels and four on the floor for making the scene.
Not yet? Then it's a cinch some of your friends are driving, and you some-
times ride the suicide seat. So take a closer look at this deadly dozen of life's
highwaymen. No matter what your unlucky number is, ride with any one
of these characters and your luck m ay be worse than seven smashed mir-
rors, 13 black cats at midnight, and a month of Fridays the thirteenth!
Instantly accelerates to
90 mph unmindful of
pedestrians and fellow
motorists. Whips his GTO
and out between rows of Vi
parked cars, gleefully
playing an Orwellian game
SCRATCH ER . . . Brother
in-blood to above species.
Guns his 396 into a split
precision take-off, fully
aware that signals are set fo
20 miles per hour.
HUGGER . . . Drives in passing
lane no matter how slow
his speed. Thinks
"Keep Right" signs are the
warnings of some religious
sect. Fancies himself
another Parnelli Jones and
feels the inside track has a
over the outside lane.
. . . Has not only a tiger in his tank
but a kink in his think.
Ignores all limits, posted or unposted
Clings to the theory that
some stupid person set them
over-cautiously low and
they are not meant for him,
since (1) his reflexes are
perfect, (2) he is an
expert operating an efficien
machine. Further maintains
that all speedometers are
set to slow down motorists.
CUT-IN SHARPSTER . . .
Knows nothing of and i
couldn't care less about laws <
of physics and facts of <\
life on the highivay.
Expects fast-moving 327 Nova
to stand still, while his
283 passes and weaves into
orbit in front of it.
PASSING FIEND . . .
Loves to play follow-the-leadt
when he's in front. Can't
stand to follow. Scorning
safety, his 427 Corvette
must pass everyone on the
road, especially on hills
or curves. And
particularly if he'll reach
his destination in the
next two or three blocks.
Shrugs his way through t
without signals. Never
thinks farther ahead than
his car hood. If he did,
would egotistically expect
other drivers to automatically
anticipate his intentions,
whether left turn, right,
or instant dead stop.
IGNORAMUS . . . Seemingly
a frustrated Broadway
actor with a love for bright
lights. Tours freeways
and byways blind and deaf
to danger of blinking
and clicking safety devices-
accidentally flicked on or
gone awry, so that other
drivers cannot depend
on the correctness of any
automatic turn signals until
move has been made.
BLITHE SPIRIT . . . Can
drink himself to death
(even take others with
him) on the small amount of
alcohol required to
reduce alertness, and
slow reflexes. His normal
good judgment disappears
in drunkeness, which,
studies reveal, is involved
in about half of the
nation's almost 50,000 yearly
fatal accidents, with
70 percent of all fatal injuries
resulting from persons
drinking the equivalent
in alcohol of three or more
The instructor was a
patient in the hospital.
He stood before the class
I with all qualities,
has many degrees.
As I reflect upon the experiences of a year in
Vietnam, I realize that I witnessed many of these
variations. There was the physical courage of the
battlefield; the quiet courage of mentally and
physically exhausted men accepting additional
missions; and the courage to meet the tedium of
everyday duty. But above all others, there was
the courage of conviction— that courage which
enabled some to say "no" to the countless tempta-
tions that were flaunted before them, and mean it.
"It takes courage to be a Latter-day Saint,"
said George Q. Cannon. "A man that is a coward
cannot be a Latter-day Saint. A woman who is
not a heroine cannot be a Latter-day Saint. It
requires just that kind of courage which is so
rare in the world . . . the courage to maintain
I saw this courage when two low-ranking GI's
went to the hardened commanding officer of the
stockade and asked to have one of the guards
taken off the night watch. When the colonel
asked why, the response was, "So we can teach
him the gospel of Jesus Christ." The request was
I saw this courage late one night in an evacua-
tion hospital. A faithful elder, severely burned
when his helicopter crashed, took my hand, smiled,
Joseph F. McConkie
and said, "I'm in a great deal of pain. Would you
administer to me?"
I saw this courage in the humble tears of a
career sergeant when he was called to be a group
leader. He had volunteered to go to Vietnam, leav-
ing a large family at home, so he could serve the
Church. He took 50 copies of the Book of Mormon
I saw this courage in the hospital chapel at
Vung Tau, where a small servicemen's group was
holding priesthood meeting. The instructor was a
patient in the hospital. He stood before the class
in pajamas. After the meeting he confided, "I
didn't think I would be able to stand. Now it hurts
I thrilled at the many young men I met who not
only had the courage to meet physical danger, but
also had the courage to remain true to covenants
they made with the Lord. After one of his trips
to Vietnam, Elder Gordon B. Hinckley described
our LDS servicemen in these words: "There are no
better men in the world than these who, while
wearing the uniform of the United States, are
doing their duty as holders of the priesthood of
God." To that I would only add, There are none
Captain Joseph F. McConkie spent a year in Viet-
nam as an army chaplain. He is a former seminary
instructor and missionary.
Era of Youth
Era of Youth
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2511 S.W. Temple • Salt Lake City, Utah 84115
By William T. Sykes
■^' )M»m0^MM : v : mim
• The long, needle-shaped object
streaked upward, spaceward. As
I watched it lift its human cargo
toward the stars, there came into
my mind an old, half-forgotten
story, one that had seemed buried
in fantasy — an unreal tale, yet
one that claims a place in the
genesis of man's history on the
"And they said, Go to, let us
build us a city and a tower, whose
top may reach into heaven; and
let us make us a name, lest we be
scattered abroad upon the face
of the whole earth.
"And the Lord came down to
see the city and the tower, which
the children of men builded.
"And the Lord said, Behold,
the people is one, and they have
all one language; and this they
begin to do: and now nothing will
he restrained from them, which
they have imagined to do" (Gen.
11:4-6. Italics added.)
Man is a restless, unsatisfied,
impatient creature, a mental
giant. Half-fearfully we read of
him: ". . . and now nothing will
be restrained from them, which
they have imagined to do." We
cannot believe that man's imagi-
nation will end on the surface of
the moon, or Mars, or any other
member of the family of our sun.
And if not on one of these, where?
To the Latter-day Saint, whose
teachings tell him that some-
where out there, somewhere near
the great star Kolob, God has his
throne, the creative possibilities
"In this rapidly changing world, just what
should I be looking for in a good university?"
Here are a few guidelines you might consider in choosing a college or university
WHAT IS THE FACULTY LIKE?
No university can rise to a level of excellence above that of its faculty. A university is more than
just a campus — it's people and ideas and dialogue — and among the most important people are
the men and women who teach the classes.
WHAT IS THE EXTENT AND THE QUALITY OF THE ACADEMIC PROGRAMS?
How many fields of study are available at the undergraduate level? How many kinds of graduate
degrees are available? How many professional schools can you choose from? How good is the
quality of instruction and research in the academic programs? For example — what is the caliber
of the scholarship in the honors program? Are the academic opportunities relevant to your
needs? How much is offered in your particular chosen field?
IS THE ADMINISTRATION INNOVATIVE, PROGRESSIVE, CREATIVE?
Who are the decision makers in the administration and what are their ideas? Most important — is
the administration aware of the needs of students and faculty and honestly responsive to these
needs? Are students allowed to contribute in a meaningful way to the university? To what extent
are students and faculty involved in decisions that govern the university?
WHAT ARE THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES?
Will you have a chance to associate with a variety of people? To explore all ideas, to question
each premise, to weigh issues for yourself? Do you hope to participate in student activities,
associations, government and fraternities? Do you expect meaningful religious involvement
according to your own choice?
5 FINALLY, THE MOST IMPORTANT QUESTION IS ABOUT YOURSELF.
WHAT KIND OF PERSON ARE YOU?
Are you a mature and responsible person who can cope wisely with freedom? Are you really
concerned with learning and academic excellence? Are you the kind of person who demands
honesty and intellectual integrity in yourself as well as in others?
You must weigh the merits of a university in relation to your personal needs and choose for
yourself . . .
Can we help you by sending information about the University of Utah? We will welcome a letter
or telephone call to:
Franklin L. McKean, Director of Admissions
309 Park Building, University of Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah 84112
Telephone (801) 322-7281
August 1969 51
We provide the gracious touch
of charm and elegance in our
personalized assistance with your
6505 Highland Drive
Salt Lake Citv. Utah
If no answer, call 487-6116 or 485-8880
MIA CHORAL FESTIVAL
REPERTOIRE • 1970 •
Now Let All the Heavens
Adore Thee — Bach
Sing to the Lord — Vance
The Lord Is My Shepherd-
Cranberry Corners — Klein
Canon — Bach-Swingle
Be Joyful — Glarum
Choose Something Like a
Star — Thompson
Hallelujah — Beethoven
From The Mount of
While We're Young
Up, Up and Away
Make a Joyful Sound
Abide With Me
w Music Cot
P. O. Box 2009
IDAHO FALLS, IDAHO 8340
in man's imagination bear added
testimony that he is indeed a son
of God, and that as such appar-
ently nothing will be restrained
from him. As a son of that Fa-
ther, man thrills with the knowl-
edge that space is filled with
God's kingdoms, and that if he is
faithful, all that his Father has
will be shared with him.
Abraham saw these kingdoms
and said: "And I saw the stars,
that they were very great, and
that one of them was nearest un-
to the throne of God; and there
were many great ones which were
near unto it;
"And the Lord said unto me:
These are the governing ones; and
the name of the great one is Ko-
lob, because it is near unto me,
for I am the Lord thy God: I
have set this one to govern all
those which belong to the same
order as that upon which thou
standest." (Abr. 3:2-3.)
In simple terms, Abraham saw
that this earth is involved in a
continuing, connecting chain of
governing stars reaching out
through space until the chain
reaches the throne of God, near
Kolob, the great governing body,
which is set to govern all the
stars and planets that belong to
the order in which this earth is
placed. Even though God, who
upholds all these things by his
power, is an actual personage,
occupying only one place at a
time, and has a place of adminis-
trative power from which all
these things are governed, yet he
is so closely related to men on
this earth that he shows himself
to them and speaks face to face
with them as one man speaks to
The Lord said: "Now, if there
be two things, one above the
other, and the moon be above the
earth, then it may be that a
planet or a star may exist above
it; and there is nothing that the
Lord thy God shall take in his
heart to do but what he will do
it." (Abr. 3:17.)
Since man is the son of God, it
may be said of him also that
there is nothing he "shall take in
his heart to do but what he will do
it." To those who might suggest
that man cannot reach the pin-
nacle of his creativeness, that this
life with its supposed limitations
offers only the closed door of
death, a photograph of a giant
missile streaking its way into the
heavens can be a reminder that
life is eternal, that man's progress
can be as limitless as space.
When God said that "he that
hath eternal life is rich" (D&C
6:7), he said something that all
men may rationally believe and
more fully understand as space
begins to yield its secrets to those
who explore its dimensions. And
if mortal man can accomplish
this, what then of his future when
he joins the immortals and comes
to learn from the Great Explorer
all the secrets of the universe?
We are not among those who
would question present advan-
tages to be gained by seeking out
the secrets above and beyond the
earth. Neither need we concern
ourselves with future colonization
of the moon or other bodies that
might be included in our total
space program. If the peopling of
other celestial bodies is not given
to man in mortality, then surely
we can leave the control of it in
What does seem of importance
to us is that we conduct our lives
after the pattern set by our Fa-
ther in heaven, so these great
accomplishments in space may be
ours to continue throughout all
eternity. Then it may truly be
said of us, when we begin to build
our city and our tower, ". . . now
nothing will be restrained from
them, which they have imagined
to do." O
By sharing expenses with others, each
person can usually live in a much
nicer home for less money,
By Eleanor Knowles
When Family Means Roommates
• In today's mobile society, when many young people
leave home in their late teens or early twenties to
pursue an education or career, the word family often
comes to include roommates— other young people who
have similar interests and who pool their resources
to share a room, apartment, or home.
For the person who is just leaving home and looking
forward to this sharing experience, it's a time of eager
anticipation. Hopefully, having and being a roommate
will be enjoyable. For some, though, it is also a time
of trial, error, and sometimes disappointment. Finding
the right combination of roommates— those who will be
compatible and pleasant to live with— isn't always easy,
and it takes a great deal of patience, understanding,
and effort on the part of each person who shares liv-
ing quarters with others.
Let's face it— not everyone has the same ways of
doing things, the same interests, the same background.
While you usually find differences of habits and inter-
ests among persons who are in the immediate family,
such differences may be much more exaggerated and
pronounced among persons who come from different
homes and environments.
Roommates come in all sizes, shapes, and types. One
may like to go to bed early; another is a "night per-
son." One likes rock music; another prefers the classics.
One is gregarious and likes to have many people
around; another is a loner and enjoys solitude. One
person is a meticulous housekeeper; another doesn't
notice dust on the floor or dirty dishes in the sink.
Why, then, do people ever join forces to share apart-
ments? Actually, the advantages almost always out-
weigh the disadvantages, especially for the young adult
who has a limited budget and is not yet established in
the community. By sharing expenses with others, this
person can usually live in a much nicer home for less
money, and there are also the advantages of instant
friendships and companionship. If, in addition to hav-
ing quarters in common, the roommates are also active
in church, are near the same age, enjoy the same or
similar types of recreation and entertainment, and
have similar standards and ideals, the all-important
CQ (compatibility quotient) is high and chances for
a happy home life are greatly enhanced.
For girls especially, learning to manage a home or
apartment is an invaluable training ground for mar-
riage. One writer, who claims that "roommates make
the best wives," has written: "When I . . . graduated
from high school, I couldn't even light a gas stove.
After having lived with 15 roommates, from one to five
at a time, during five years of college and two of a
career, I can now, if necessary, bake a loaf of bread,
change a fuse, bait a mouse trap (and dispose of it
when it's served its purpose), cook 43 different dishes
starring hamburger, and look on almost all quirks of
behavior with equanimity. I'm also a whiz at provid-
ing three meals a day at $5 per week per person, and if,
after marriage, I discover that my husband has no
more trying habits than snoring, strewing his clothes
on the floor, and eating crackers in bed, I'll consider
him a miracle." (Joan Paulson, Ladies Home Journal,
March 1967, p. 171. )
What sort of situation will the person who is new
to "roommating" find? There are probably as many
different kinds of roommate situations as there are
people. No two combinations of individuals are alike,
and there are innumerable factors, personalities, back-
grounds, and habits that must be reckoned with.
Often roommates share the cooking, but sometimes
their schedules, habits, and preferences dictate a policy
of "to each his own," with a kitchen drawer or shelf
and refrigerator space assigned to each person for his
own supplies. Some roommate groups shop together,
cook together, and share household responsibilities;
others assign duties that are done individually. Some
enjoy activities together both inside and outside the
home; others have only their sleeping quarters in com-
mon and pursue other interests and activities indi-
But no matter what the situation, a few basic guide-
lines should be considered to help make roommate liv-
ing a more pleasant experience for all:
1. Decide on a division of responsibility for house-
hold chores, and stick to it. Each person should assume
responsibility for keeping the home clean and should
not have to be nagged or reminded to do his share of
the housework. A duty chart with rotation of specific
responsibilities usually works well.
2. Expect to pay your share of the expenses (rent,
telephone, lights, food, etc. ) . It helps if one person
handles the finances and sees that the rent and utilities
are paid on time. Food expenses may be handled by
the person assigned to do the cooking for the week or
by the apartment "treasurer."
3. Respect each other's property. Borrowing is fine
only if both parties agree to it.
4. Respect each other's right to privacy. There are
times when virtually everyone needs to be alone, and
others shouldn't take offense (unless, of course, one
person's need for privacy and solitude is constant and
he or she continually shuts out the others in the group;
in such a case, the person involved may need counsel-
ing or may be better off living alone ) .
5. Don't bottle up grievances and grudges. Talk
them out with the person involved and try to reach
an understanding as soon as possible.
6. Keep your own possessions put away and your
own room and living space neat. If each person does
this, no one need feel embarrassed or chagrined if
unexpected company drops in. It also makes for a
more comfortable home for all.
7. Select roommates who are close to the same age,
if possible, and who have compatible or similar
8. Make a conscious effort to try to get along with
the other roommates. As one girl has said, "It's more
important to try to get along than to worry about
little inconveniences or annoyances of those we live
Preparing and eating meals together is a pleasant
experience for most roommates. Those who have
never done much cooking before will find roommates
generally tolerant of their efforts and often helpful
in teaching them how to cook. Those who are more
proficient at preparing meals often enjoy trying out
new and exotic dishes. (I can remember vividly one
family home evening when each roommate and guest
prepared a speciality for a pot-luck supper, and we
ended up with enchiladas, a noodle casserole, garlic
bread, a German torte with sour-cherry filling— and
avocado ice cream! )
"Unlike new husbands, roommates have no qualms
about judging a dish to be a disaster," one girl has
Young adults today are generally quite involved in
outside activities, taking classes, doing community
and club work, fulfilling church assignments, and
pursuing cultural interests. Therefore, it's nice to have
a few one-dish-meal specialties that can be prepared
and then kept warm on the burner or in the oven. The
following recipes have been found by two career girls
to be delicious, economical, and easy to prepare.
Shrimp and Noodle Casserole
2 cups small shrimp, cooked and
cleaned (or 2 cans shrimp)
8 ounces narrow noodles, cooked
1 can condensed Cheddar cheese soup
soup can milk
cups whole-kernel corn, cooked
(canned or frozen)
cup sliced mushrooms, or 6-ounce
tablespoons buttered crumbs
Combine all ingredients except buttered
crumbs and pour into a greased
medium-size casserole. Sprinkle with
crumbs and bake about 30 minutes in
a 400° F. oven, or until browned and
Ham Casserole With Vegetables
1% cups cooked ham, diced
1 cup cooked green beans
1 can condensed cream of mush-
V 2 cup milk
1 cup whole-kernel corn
1 cup cooked carrot slices
1 cup cooked little white onions
y 2 cup buttered crumbs
Combine all ingredients except crumbs
in a medium casserole. Top with
crumbs and bake 20-25 minutes in a
375° F. oven, or until golden and
Quickie Corn Chowder
V4 cup butter or margarine
1 large onion, diced
1 can (1 pound) cream-style corn
2 cans (1 pound each) whole pota-
1 can (7 ounces) tuna fish, flaked
3 cups milk
1 teaspoon seasoned salt
Y 2 teaspoon salt
% teaspoon pepper
In large saucepan, melt butter. Add
diced onion and cook until tender, but
not brown. Add corn, diced potatoes,
tuna, milk, and seasonings. Heat thor-
oughly, but do not boil. Makes about 2
Sweet and Sour Meatballs
1 pound ground beef
1 tablespoon cornstarch
1 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons onion, chopped
1 tablespoon oil
1 cup pineapple juice
3 tablespoons cornstarch
1 tablespoon soy sauce
3 tablespoons vinegar
6 tablespoons water
y 2 cup brown sugar — *-
spout . . .
On New 2 lb. fine granulated,
1 lb. fine granulated 1 lb.
Sweeten your life with sweet
treats made with U and I
Sugar . . . home grown/home
produced in "Sugarplum
WEDDING INVITATIONS & ACCESSORIES
Printed on finest plain or paneled
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M E R C U R Y
146 EAST SIXTH SOUTH STREET
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84111
Look ahead to school wardrobes
and fall home decorating
Shop our newly-arriving collections for family fash-
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terms arranged. Delivery in our wide delivery area.
Mail orders to Box 1465, Salt Lake City, Utah.
State and Broadway, Salt Lake City, Utah 841 10
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4 slices pineapple, cut into pieces
2 green peppers, cut into strips
Mix ground beef, egg, 1 tablespoon
cornstarch, salt, onion, and few grains
of pepper. Form into 18 balls or more.
Brown them in a small amount of oil;
drain. To 1 tablespoon oil add pine-
apple juice and cook over low heat a
few minutes. Add mixture of 3 table-
spoons cornstarch, soy sauce, vinegar,
water, and sugar. Cook until juice
thickens, stirring constantly. Add meat
balls, pineapple, and green pepper
strips. Heat thoroughly. Serve hot.
Cooked sliced chicken (enough to serve
2 packages frozen broccoli, cooked
Y 2 cup sliced toasted Brazil nuts or
6 tablespoons butter or margarine
6 tablespoons flour
3 cups milk
iy 2 teaspoons salt
3 egg yolks, slightly beaten
x /4 teaspoon Tabasco sauce
4 tablespoons grated Parmesan
Make a cream sauce of the butter,
flour, and milk, and season to taste.
Stir until it is smooth and thick. Add a
little to the egg yolks and blend back
into the cream sauce. Cook a minute or
two more, but do not let it boil. Stir
in the Tabasco and cheese. Arrange
the cooked broccoli on the bottom of a
shallow casserole. Pour a thin layer of
the cream sauce on the broccoli and
cover with half of the nuts. Arrange the
chicken slices on top in a thick layer,
overlapping them. Cover with the rest
of the sauce. Bake the casserole 20
minutes in a 375° F. oven. Sprinkle
with the remaining nuts and bake 5
minutes longer. Put under the broiler
for a moment to brown. (Note: Turkey
may be used in place of chicken.) q
By Joseph Dewey
A thousand-mile journey begins
Not with the first step,
But ivith the thought, the intent.
Before greatness is wrought,
There proceeds a great thought.
The first step is inclined
By a journey out of sight —
Ten thousand miles of light
In the mind.
It's the greatest
shopping and travel card
ever invented- because it
can be used for so many
things at so many places.
Saves me time every
month 'cause I have only
one bill to pay instead
/ iike it because it make9
record keeping go easy.
And if heipQ me
control my budget too.
On/y once have /
used the cash advance
-feature. / needed cash right
ifien for a very worthwhile
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U Upon a wooded hilltop overlook-
ing Madrid, Elder Marion G. Romney
dedicated Spain for the preaching of
the gospel. The Church was legally
recognized by Spain on October 22,
Susquehanna Stake (New York-
Pennsylvania) was organized by Elder
Mark E. Petersen of the Council of
the Twelve from parts of Cumorah
Stake and the Cumorah Mission. Sus-
tained were President Harold R. Cape-
ner and counselors Joseph M. Ballantyne
and Horace H. Christensen. This is the
483rd stake now functioning in the
EU The First Presidency announced
the assignments of recently appointed
Alaska Canadian: Raymond C. Bowers.
Andes South: Norman K. Roberts.
Argentine: Verden E. Bettilyon.
Arizona (new mission): Clark M. Wood
Austrian: Charles W. Broberg.
Brazilian: Sherman H. Hibbert.
British: Wilford Dean Belnap.
California: John K. Edmunds.
California East (new mission): William
California North (new mission): Ira
California South: Marion L. Coleman.
Central British: Clifton I. Johnson.
Central German: Walter H. Kindt.
Cumorah: Robert L. Stephenson.
Danish: Paul L. Pehrson.
East Central States: William H. Day.
Franco-Belgian: Thomas H. Brown.
Hawaii: Kenneth N. Gardner.
New Zealand South: Eugene Ludwig.
North Argentine: Henry C. Gorton.
Northwestern States: Grant A. Stucki.
Norwegian: Ray C. Johnson.
Scottish: Francis N. Grigg.
South Central States (new mission):
Albert B. Crandall.
Swedish: Herbert B. Spencer.
Tongan: James P. Christensen.
Western States: Phillip G. Redd.
U Arkansas Stake, 484th in the
Church, was organized by Elder Harold
B. Lee of the Council of the Twelve
and Elder James A. Cullimore, Assistant
to the Twelve, from the Arkansas Dis-
trict of the Gulf States Mission. Presi-
dent Dean C. Andrew and counselors
Thomas L. Brown and Jesse L. Miller
New stake presidencies: President
Blaine W. Hancey and counselors Wil-
liam A. Sorenson and Rex K. Thompson,
Cache (Utah) Stake; President Vyrl D.
Goff and counselors Dee R. Witt and
Floyd D. Glissmeyer, Redding (Cali-
||J Additional mission president and
his assignment announced by the First
Finnish: Orval L. Nelson.
It was announced that 37,398 stu-
dents in the United States and 13 other
countries were graduated from seminary
this year. In addition, 1,850 college stu-
dents were graduated from institutes
An automobile accident in the rain
near Innsbruck claimed the lives of
two missionaries serving in the Austrian
Mission, Elders Vaughn A. Mason, 21,
of Rexburg, Idaho, and Mitchell Daniel
Wilson, 20, of Denver, Colorado.
EH Hudson River Stake, 485th now
functioning, was organized by Elder
Mark E. Petersen of the Council of the
Twelve from the Albany District, "Cu-
morah Mission, with Thomas L. Hicken
as stake president and J. Reid Burnett,
Sr., and Sterling C. Burton, counselors.
New stake presidency: President
Kenneth P. Anderson succeeds Presi-
dent J. Richard Evanson, deceased, in
the Taber (Alberta, Canada) Stake.
Counselors are Garth M. Harris and
Burns W. Wood.
jjj Additional mission presidents and
assignments were announced by the
Southern Australian: Lester F. Hew-
Florida: J. Murray Rawson.
North Central States: Carl M. King.
French Polynesian: Ralph J. Rich-
Pensacola (Florida) Stake was or-
ganized by Elder Mark E. Petersen of
the Council of the Twelve from portions
of the Florida Mission. President Stan-
ford L. Stapleton and counselors Harold
L. Miller, Sr., and Nelson L. Roane
Sacramento (California) South Stake
was organized from portions of Sacra-
mento Stake by Elder Ezra Taft Benson
of the Council of the Twelve. President
John H. Huber and counselors Lee W.
Carter and Connell B. Roberts were
Pago Pago (American Samoa) Stake
was organized by Elder Howard W.
Hunter of the Council of the Twelve
and Elder Henry D. Taylor, Assistant to
the Twelve, from portions of the
Samoan Mission. President Patrick
Peters and counselors Opapo Afualo
and John W. Welton were sustained.
The three stakes organized today
bring the number of functioning stakes
New stake presidencies: President
Russell G. Williams and counselors
Lloyd L. Brown and Dietrich K. Gehm-
lich, Grant (Salt Lake City) Stake;
President Homer Nixon Stephenson
and counselors Albert L. Fisher, Jr.,
and Stanley R. Dewsnup, Sacramento
Additional mission presidents and
their assignments were announced by
the First Presidency:
Northern States: Wilford K. Kimball,
Southeast Mexican: Samuel Boren.
Of perpetual interest
to Church members and
Now available in
a special Era-sized
40( per copy
for 25 or
Selections from the finest articles and pictures appearing in the Era over
a number of years, including:
• Full-page, full-color pictures of all
• Numerous four-color pictures of
• The Purpose of Temples — President
David 0. McKay
• The LDS Concept of Marriage —
President Hugh B. Brown
• Ancient Temples and Their Functions
— Sidney B. Sperry
• Other pertinent articles on distinctive
features of "Mormonism"
Ideal for home,
79 South State Street
Salt Lake City, Utah 84111
• The blood of man, which delivers oxygen and
nutrition to billions of body cells, requires an unfailing
propulsion source to drive it through the many miles of
blood channels on its never-ceasing circulatory route.
This driving force, the human heart, is a complex dual
circuit pump with unidirectional valves that is respon-
sive on an instant's notice to every body need.
In addition to this rapidly responsive capability,
durability of an unbelievable degree is required for
the span of a lifetime. Yet the healthy heart has these
qualities in surplus amounts. The pump action is pro-
vided by muscles that contract forcefully and
rythmically under the influence of self-generated
electrical impulses. Provide these heart muscles with
sufficient oxygen and proper nutrients via a good
blood supply, and, in the absence of chance disease or
injury, they will outlast average life span today.
The blood flow to heart muscles is through coronary
arteries originating directly from the large aorta. These
are the first arteries supplied by freshly oxygenated
and nutritionally renewed blood. If the heart's blood
supply is diminished slightly, it cannot respond maxi-
mally to stress. If it is diminished more, severe dis-
ability and painful angina pectoris or failure may-
If it is cut off completely, the heart muscles in
the deprived area will die; and if the whole person
survives, they are replaced by functionless scar tissue.
An abrupt closure of a coronary artery produces
death in approximately thirty percent of those so
afflicted before they can reach a hospital. Thirty to
forty percent of those reaching a hospital alive will
subsequently succumb, with an overall mortality rate
of approximately fifty percent. This abrupt cessation
of blood supply to a portion of the heart muscle is
called a heart attack ( coronary occlusion or myocardial
infarction). Almost all cases of this nature are caused
by hardening ( atherosclerosis ) of the coronary arteries,
which results in a clot or atherosclerotic plaque
plugging the vessel. This condition is such a frequent
occurrence that it is the leading cause of death in the
United States, with half a million Americans dying
annually from its onslaught.
Atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, occurs
in many areas of the body, but it is in the vital areas of
the body that in many cases the disastrous effects of
this disease are first manifest (heart-coronary occlu-
sion and brain-stroke ) . Atherosclerosis is an abnormal
deposition of fatty substances in the normally smooth,
strong inner wall of arteries, with fats (lipids), lipo-
proteins, and cholesterol being the chief chemicals
The very high death rate for those with this disease
continues unchecked despite maximum research efforts
Dr. Ray G. Cowley, a member of the Denver (Colorado)
18th Ward, is executive secretary of the Western States
Mission presidency, chief of the pulmonary disease
service at Fitzsimmons General Hospital in Denver, and
a respected medical lecturer and author of numerous
scientific papers on medical topics.
and much money expended to improve the treatment
results. This process can be prevented, however, and
the emphasis should logically be in this direction.
The process of atherosclerosis was once thought to be
an inevitable and irreversible result of aging, but it is
neither of these, and the facts regarding this have only
recently been established.
This type of heart disease is primarily seen in males,
with increasing numbers of cases being seen in younger
age groups (30's, 40's, and 50\s) during the past two
decades. Although females arc apparently protected
from heart attacks before menopause by special
hormones, afterward they become as vulnerable as the
male, with an even higher mortality rate.
The story of the search for the cause of this medical
problem is a fascinating one, and many answers are
now known. Highlighting the facts is this report from
The Mayo Clinic Yroceecling: "I would like now to dis-
pose of two ideas that have fairly wide acceptance
among physicians. One is that atherosclerosis is an
invariable accompaniment of the aging vascular sys-
tem. The other is that the disease is irreversible.
Neither is true. Observations in man as well as experi-
mental animals over many years have shown that
atherosclerosis can in fact be reversed. The mecha-
nisms by which such reversal can be effected have been
largely of a dietary nature. Our views on athero-
sclerosis based on a painstaking, sometimes halting, and
often confusing marshalling of data leave no room for
doubt that this disease need not be a necessary part of
the aging vascular system. Atherosclerosis is prevent-
able and reversible." (Vol. 40, November 1965, p. 815.)
Why is this epidemic of heart disease occurring
in the United States and not at all or to a lesser degree
in other countries of the world? The United States
has become a dangerous country to live in from this
standpoint. A recent worldwide survey of mortality
statistics revealed that the U.S. mortality rate was
exceeded by only one other country. The entire reason
for this high mortality rate was coronary heart disease.
One might assume that discovery of control measures
for so widespread a disease would be simple, but the
uninspired mind of man most often learns truth
through the pathway of trial and error, and this is a
tedious, costly, and difficult process.
The gathering of scientific data began in a very
preliminary manner in 1908 when a Russian scientist,
Ignatovski, noted a much higher incidence of coronary
atherosclerosis among the wealthy class in Russia than
was found in the peasant population. He studied this
situation thoroughly and reported that the high inci-
dence of heart disease among the rich was related to a
high dietary intake of meat and butterfat. He was
wise before the times would allow and was silenced
Richard L Evans
The Spoken Word
"My departed hours-
where are they?"
Ever and always startling is the swiftness with
which time goes, the speed at which life passes.
"My departed hours — where are they?" 1 the
poet asked in anguish. The weeks seem hours only.
And when we look at what we do with a day, the
lost time, the in-between times, we wonder at the
time we waste away — sometimes looking at or
listening to what isn't worth the time it takes; some-
times reading what isn't worth or worthy of the
paper it is printed on; sometimes thoughts that
never should have been thought or written. "What
is time?" asked Longfellow. "The shadow on the
dial, the striking of the clock, the running of the
sand . . .? These are but . . . outward signs. . . . Time
is the Life of the soul." 2 Time, life, choice: — the
very essence of all we are or shall be — ever. And
mayhap we ought to make our own time-and-motion
studies in our own personal pursuits, and note the
difference between going forward and merely going
through motions; and not so much needlessly do
the same things over and over again, such as some-
times shifting and reshuffling the same pile of papers
and putting them in different places, without really
clearing up the clutter; sometimes doing essentially
the same with problems — worrying and reworrying
about the same ones without doing what can or
should be done; sometimes wrestling with the
same habits, the same appetites, the same troubled
conscience, without really repenting or improving
or really learning our lessons. With time moving,
chimes sounding, life passing, just going through
motions is not enough. There are some things we
ought to be doing now, or ought already to have
done. Oh, may we have the wisdom to use the
little time, the precious life, to do what should be
done, to learn what should be learned, to live as
we should live: repenting, improving, performing,
with a blessed sense of peace and purpose — not
just rearranging our problems — not just rushing
•Edward Young, Night Thoughts.
2 Longfellow. Hyperion, Bk ii, ch, 6.
*"The Spoken Word" from Tem-
ple Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting
System |une 15, 1969. Copyright 1969.
An imnOrtant rPDOrt fl bout they utilized figures for saturated fat available rather
than estimating the amount ingested (which may vary
, widely, depending on cooking habits). Correction for
me6t--anu Wnat IT Can (JO these two factors showed that death rates from coro-
nary occlusion were more closely related to increased
tr\ thp hum^n hCrirt intake of animal protein in the diet than to saturated-
fat content. ( Animal protein refers to the lean portion
of animal meat products. )
There are now large numbers of investigations com-
pleted and published that attest to this revised con-
by disbelieving colleagues who could not accept his elusion. It is essential to consider too much meat as
finding that the "best foods" in the diet were respon- a whole, not just the fat portion, as the most important
sible for such a devastating disease process. This cause of coronary atherosclerosis in the U.S. Other
original and correct thought was subdued by the forces factors do enter into the picture, such as diabetes,
of ignorance, and for three decades little work was high blood pressure, heredity, and smoking, but diet
done along this line until the pressing urgency of the is by far the most important one. There is now wide-
burgeoning number of cases in the USA demanded spread medical agreement that proper dietary control
attention. would very significantly and rapidly reduce this serious
An American medical missionary working in China in problem,
the 1930's and 40's was struck by the lack of this disease In the journal Nutritional Reviews ( Vol. 18, Novem-
there as compared to the United States and again ber 1960 ) is a study of coronary heart disease in African
sought the answer. His conclusion was that dietary Bantu natives compared to Englishmen living in the
differences played the primary role, with too much same area. The English males have 26 times as much
saturated fat in the American diet possibly being the coronary disease as the Bantus, and their diet is in-
major cause. (Saturated fats are usually solid at room criminated as the cause. The English ingest large
temperature and originate primarily in animals and amounts of meat of animal origin and the Bantus eat
fowls. The lean meat is surrounded and penetrated by very little meat, subsisting on grain, vegetables, and
this fat, and complete separation, of lean and fat in fruit for the most part.
the kitchen is literally impossible. ) From Finland comes further data in the Acta Medica
The World Health Organization (WHO) then con- Scandinavica (Vol. 139 , page 364). In World
ducted a multi-country survey of this problem spanning War II, the population of Finland was on strict food
10 years of time. The survey included such countries rationing. During this time, the previously significant
as Italy and Japan, where the incidence of this disease incidence of coronary heart disease dropped almost
is twentyfold less than in the United States. (When to zero. When the rationing stopped and meat and
inhabitants of these two countries, and others, migrate butterfat again became plentiful, the incidence of
to the U.S. and adopt their new country's eating coronary occlusions increased 584 percent in six years,
habits, their heart attack rate rises within ten years.) A most revealing (and alarming) study emerged
The conclusion derived from this study was that there from the Korean War. Special studies of the coronary
is a "probable" relationship between a high saturated arteries to determine the degree of atherosclerosis
fat intake and a high incidence of coronary athero- present were carried out in 500 American males and
sclerosis. (Journal of Chronic Diseases, Vol. 4, October 500 males killed in action. The average age of both
1956, p. 364.) The results of this study were widely groups was 22. Virtually none of the Koreans had
accepted and the "probable" relationship became coronary artery abnormalities, whereas 90 percent of
"definite" in the minds of many. the American males had atherosclerosis of their
An enlightening sequel to the WHO study appeared coronary arteries. In half of these Americans the
two years later and demonstrates the difficulty of atherosclerosis was severe enough to be considered
correctly interpreting masses of data. Two statisticians medically significant. (Journal of the American Medical
from the Rockefeller Research Institute could not Association, Vol. 152 , p. 1090.) Personal corn-
accept the conclusions published by WHO, and they munication in 1966 with a Korean health authority
received permission to reanalyze their data. The re- disclosed that only one case of coronary occlusion had
suits of this reevaluation were published in the New been encountered in 15 years at the largest medical
York State Medical Journal, Volume 59 ( 1958 ) , page center in Seoul, Korea. Contrast this to the very large
2343. Whereas WHO studied 27 countries, they in- numbers of patients with this disease constantly present
eluded only six in their final analysis. Furthermore, in every general hospital in the United States. Again,
62 Improvement Era
the obvious reason for this wide difference is the
Korean diet of vegetables, fruits, and seafoods, whereas
meat and butterfat are scarce in Korea. (Butterfat has
been mentioned several times, and there is now suffi-
cient evidence to conclude that this animal origin food
product is one of the dietary factors producing coronary
A study dealing with the effect of deliberate dietary
alterations in humans needs to be mentioned. At the an-
nual meeting of the American College of Physicians in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1962, a panel of promi-
nent heart specialists presented the results of the
Several hundred patients already diagnosed as hav-
ing sufficient atherosclerosis to produce signs of
symptoms of disease were divided into two equal
groups. Those in one group continued their usual
American diet, and the other group was placed on a
diet containing no animal origin meat and only small
amounts of fowl origin meat. Seafoods, grains, vege-
tables, and fruit were the primary foods. Those two
groups were carefully observed for ten years. The
group on the low meat diet showed a much lower rate
of progression of their atherosclerosis, a much reduced
death rate, and some participants even recovered in
part or completely from the symptoms of their disease.
The other group showed the expected progressive
downhill course of the average American with this
disease who continues to eat average American diet.
The panel concluded that if the epidemic of coronary
atherosclerosis in the USA is to be curtailed, the
American populace must begin at a young age to eat
the low meat type of diet that was tested for ten years.
A recent list of 489 articles on the disease athero-
sclerosis, many showing the relationship of diet to
the formation of atherosclerosis, is available to anyone
interested in further pursuit of this subject. (Labora-
tory Investigation, Vol. 18, May 1968, pp. 629-39.)
This mass of research data shows a strong relationship
between a high incidence of atherosclerosis and dietary
changes incident to improved economic status, such
as the greater consumption of animal protein, saturated
fat, refined carbohydrates, and the decreased use oF
cereal grains. (See pages 623 to 628 of this same
journal, "Diet and Atherosclerosis.") Although this
relationship is now supported by almost incontrovert-
ible proof, the medical profession has been slow to
accept findings that decimate a long-standing and
traditional medical dictum that a steady and large
dietary intake of animal or fowl origin meat is essen-
tial to good health.
In times or places where available foods are limited
in variety, quantity, or quality, such as in rice-based
cultures or famine conditions, meat of animal or fowl
origin may become an important source, and indeed,
a necessary protein source, if available. For affluent
contemporary cultures, however, the prudent diet with
protein sources of fish, seafoods, whole grains (espe-
cially wheat), and non-fat milk solids is adequate in
protein content, less costly, and does not carry with
it the spectre of early and severe atherosclerosis.
Although we cannot know with certainty all the
reasons that our Father in heaven has given us clear-
cut and specific instructions to eat little or no meat of
animal or fowl origin, one fact is certain: Daily con-
sumption of animal- and fowl-origin meat and fat may
be an important cause of coronary heart disease.
"Yea, flesh also of beasts and of the fowls of the air, I,
the Lord, have ordained for the use of man with
thanksgiving; nevertheless they are to be used spar-
"And it is pleasing unto me that they should not be;
used, only in times of winter, or of cold, or famine.
"All grain is ordained for the use of man and of
beasts, to be the staff of life, not only for man but for
the beasts of the field, and the fowls of the heaven,
and all wild animals that run or creep on the earth;
"And these hath God made for the use of man only
in times of famine and excess of hunger." (D&C 89:12-
15. Italics added.* )
The Word of Wisdom is a remarkable revelation
brought forth in 1833 as a health guide. It has re-
mained completely unchanged in 136 years, with
medical research repeatedly attesting to its validity.
Contrast this to man-produced medical information of
that same time period, of which the vast majority has
been replaced or necessarily changed as research has
revealed fallacies therein. The items of medical litera-
ture from that time that remain intact today are of
value only as museum pieces.
Had Joseph Smith sought help in 1833 from the best
medical authorities in the world, used their ideas in
the preparation of such a document, and then declared
it to be of divine origin, he would have been branded
a fraud prior to the turn of the century. The only con-
ceivable explanation for Section 89 of the Doctrine
and Covenants is that it came from a highly advanced
and infallible source of intelligence beyond this earth.
The contents of this section should be carefully studied,
and personal eating and living habits should be formu-
lated on the basis of advice given therein, for this is
of a certainty a divinely inspired guide to good health
and long life, with transcendant rewards for compliance
that should induce the most skeptical to put it to an
honest test. O
'Verses 13 and 15 leave no room for rationalization regarding the
amount of meat that we in our warm houses, warm cars, and land of
plenty should eat. (See also Sidney B. Sperry, Doctrine and Covenants
Compendium [Bookcraft, I960] pp. 455-56.)
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SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84106
The Presiding Bishop
Talks to Youth About:
The Word of Wisdom
By Bishop John H. Vandenberg
• Anyone who has looked into the
Grand Canyon in Arizona is awed
by the immensity of this great
gorge. It ranges in width from
four to 18 miles, and its greatest
depth is more than a mile below
its rim. As one looks at it, the
observation comes that it would
have taken a very powerful force
or a great convulsion to lay open
such a gaping cut in the earth's
Yet we are informed that this
great gorge was formed primarily
by the ceaseless cutting of the silt-
laden Colorado River, which now
looks like a small ribbon laid along
the canyon floor.
Similarly, small actions of viola-
tions and nonconformity to proven
and established laws can cut a
tragic channel in our lives.
One hundred thirty-six years ago
a revelation was given to guide our
actions and thoughts in a manner
that would allow character to be
built and eternal life to be achieved.
This revelation is: "A Word of Wis-
dom. . . . Given for a principle with
promise, adapted to the capacity
of the weak and the weakest of all
saints, who are or can be called
saints. Behold, verily, thus saith
the Lord unto you: In consequence
of evils and designs which do and
will exist in the hearts of conspiring
men in the last days, I have warned
you, and forewarn you, by giving
unto you this word of wisdom by
revelation." (D&C 89:1, 3-4.)
Among other things, the Lord
warned against the use of tobacco,
strong drink, and hot drinks. While
the Word of Wisdom is adapted to
the "capacity of the weak," some
persons ask what harm can there
be in a cigarette or a drink. Many
persons have found the answer to
this question as they look back over
a life that has eroded away through
alcoholism, cancer, heart disease,
and, even more seriously, a life of
spiritual deprivation brought on by
nonconformity to the word of the
Our concern for the youth of the
Church is not only with their health,
but with their spiritual well-being
as well. The Word of Wisdom is
adapted to the capacity of "the
weakest of all saints, who are or can
be called saints." It is one place
a person can begin if he is to de-
velop himself in the kingdom of
God. The keeping of the Word of
Wisdom is part of a footing on
which a person builds character.
The consequences of breaking the
Word of Wisdom are serious be-
cause they can take a person out of
the spiritual environment of our
Someone has written:
"When health is lost; something is
When character is lost, all is lost."
The stress that is placed on
the Word of Wisdom by leaders
in the Church is not because it is
the greatest commandment, but be-
cause it is a beginning point in the
building of spirituality. A young
man who bears the priesthood and
a young woman in the Church
should keep their lives above the
snares established through the
"evils and designs which do and
will exist in the hearts of conspir-
ing men in the last days."
These forces of evil would have
youth believe that there is nothing
evil in taking a cigarette, a drink
of liquor, or a cup of coffee or tea,
and billions of dollars are spent to
promulgate their designs. However,
the word of the Lord is clear. Xo
argument, reason, or slogan can
change the command of God. He
has declared through his servant:
"Know ye not that ye are the
temple of God, and that the Spirit
of God dwelleth in you?
"If any man defile the temple of
God, him shall God destroy; for
the temple of God is holy, which
temple ye are." (1 Cor. 3:16-17.)
Because of his love for us, the
Lord has warned against the erod-
ing forces employed by the evil one
to desecrate the temple of our
spirit. The Word of Wisdom is a
principle on which the youth of
the Church can build. O
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On the hot, eerie, moonlike Bonneville Salt
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name of the game. Husky/Frontier/Beeline
is the gasoline selected by Bonneville Na-
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Give Husky/Frontier/Beeline the supreme
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ALL CREDIT CARDS
The LDS Scene
Spain Dedicated for Preaching of the Gospel
The country of Spain has been
dedicated by Elder Marion G. Romney,
of the Council of the Twelve, for
the preaching of the gospel. The dedicatory
ceremony took place May 20 in the
early morning on a wooded hilltop
overlooking the skyline of Madrid. Some
30 persons, representing about
335 members of the Church in Spain
(many of them American servicemen
and their families), attended the
ceremonies. Recent changes
in Spanish law
permit to individuals
the freedom to choose, practice, and preach
to others their religious beliefs.
On October 22, 1968, the Church was
recognized with official church status
in Spain. An American serviceman's branch
was first established in Madrid in 1954.
London Temple Visitors Center
A visitors center adjacent to the
London Temple was recently
dedicated. The new center, dedicated by
Elder John Longden, Assistant to
the Council of the Twelve, includes a
50-seat theater for movie presentations
and many exhibits and displays
on gospel principles. More than
1,400 persons attended the
Dr. Gary D. Watts,
a president of the 253rd
quorum of seventy in
the Potomac Stake
in Virginia, has been named
secretary of the U.S.
Association. He will head
the division of field services
in the million-member
Dr. R. Wayne Pace,
chairman of speech
communication at the
University of Montana,
has been named president-
elect of the International
by the organization's
2,000 educators and
practitioners. Dr. Pace is
a member of the Missoula
Chilean Missionaries Honored
A double quartet of missionaries in the Chilean Mission
recently sang in the suburbs of Santiago at the
dedicatory ceremonies for a new elementary school complex
designed to handle over 3,000 students. Government
and education leaders were in attendance. The same
double quartet also appeared on "Sabado Sigantes,"
a popular national television program in Chile.
Eldon Hart of the
Rexburg (Idaho) Eighth
Ward, business manager at
Ricks College, has been
elected president of the
National Association of
College and University
He will serve a two-year
term of office.
BYU Man Heads
Dr. Cliff S. Barton,
chairman of the department
of civil engineering at
Brigham Young University,
has been elected
president of the National
Society for Experimental
Stress Analysis, a
Richard L. Evans
The Spoken Word
Quarreling-and happiness at home
One essential element in the joy of living
is harmony and happiness at home. And this
depends, after all, upon character and cour-
tesy—and just plain common sense. Why, oh why
would people who live in this closest of all relation-
ships of life let quarreling and misunderstanding
wreck the peace and happiness of home? "One kind
of quarrel clears the air, like a good, sharp thunder-
storm," wrote Dorothy Walworth. "The other kind
of quarrel . . . leaves ugly scars and bitterness, which
eventually can wreck a marriage. . . . When Caesar
. . . crossed the Rubicon, he could not turn back
and have everything the way it was before. ... If,
in quarreling, you call names . . . and show a dia-
bolical ability to use just the words that will hurt
most— [if] ruthlessly you rake up all the failings of
the past and recklessly destroy even your happiest
memories . . . you cannot retrace your steps and
have your marriage exactly as it was before. . . . No
wife or husband should take too seriously what
the other says at the end of an exhausting day . . .
[when] weary or tense [or unwell]. ... Be gentle.
In these days, we all have something better to do
with our energy than spend it battling with those we
love. . . . Don't try to win an argument just for
the sake of winning. Your husband or wife is not
your rival, not somebody over whom you must have
a petty triumph. ... A quarrel should always be
settled. It should not end . . . with two people
sulking for days. . . . Somebody should say, 'I'm
sorry.' Don't be too proud to say you're sorry. . . .
Pride is too expensive. . . . Don't insist on always
being in the right. ... A last word of warning. Keep
your quarrels private. Public outbreaks are in the
worst possible taste. There is only one remedy for
them— shut up!" 1 It comes down finally to a ques-
tion of character and courtesy and common sense.
Don't be afraid to say you're sorry. And when some-
one says it sincerely, accept it. Don't let pride or
stubbornness or stupidity wreck the peace and
happiness of a home.
'Dorothy Walworth, "Don't Be Afraid to Say You're Sorry," Good Housekeeping,
*"Tne Spoken Word" from
Temple Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcast-
ing System |une 8, 1969. Copyright 1969.
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June Conference and the
From near and far came the
ward and branch, stake, district, and
mission MIA workers to Church
headquarters for the annual
MIA conference the last week in June.
This year a special treat — the
YWMIA centennial — was in store:
a gala banquet, a lively ball with
stately promenade, gripping dramas,
winning roadshows, a stirring
quartet festival, gigantic dance
festival, premier of the film
Pioneers in Petticoats (on the beginnings
of the YWMIA), informative
workshops, sound counsel from
General Authorities, and timely
instructions from YMMIA General
Superintendent G. Carlos Smith, Jr.,
and YWMIA General President
Florence S. Jacobsen. Honorary
Master M-Man and Golden Gleaner
awards were presented to
Clifford I. Cummings, a space scientist
of the Vienna (Virginia) Ward, and
Elizabeth T. Sardoni of the Salt
Lake City East 27th Ward, a member
of the first YWMIA general board.
As usual, it was a conference
Superintendent Smith President Jacobsen Clifford Cummings Elizabeth T. Sardoni
realized the necessity of being able to
remove this section and give it straight
over to the youth. Getting it immediately
after delivery is obviously far more at-
tractive to impatient youth than getting
something stale by the time it gets into
Doheen M. Christophers
Perhaps many families missed the an-
nouncement: The "Era of Youth" is
usually in the center of the magazine to
serve the very purposes you mention.
Readers may gently pull out the section
for their youth. In some issues— for exam-
pie, general conference issues— it is neces-
sary for us to put the youth section in the
hack of the magazine.
From my observations and discussions
with some of today's youth, I will agree
with Dr. G. Homer Durham's observations
in the May Era ["Student Unrest," pp.
107-11] in that I have found an extremely
idealistic youth. They see the "revolu-
tion" in America as "beautiful," eliminat-
ing poverty and prejudice. They are
aware of the depth of knowledge on the
earth today, and have been led to believe
that drug use will expand the realms of
the mind into great and deep thoughts.
Also, they are trying to find a meaning
for life. They believe everything their
professors tell them. They accept existen-
tialism and its theory of no absolute
truth. In reality, they want the millen-
nium, but they do not know how to
accomplish this, or how to find Christ.
Mrs. Don Pooley
I know that this is unusual, but I would
like to express my thanks for such a fine
magazine. The Era has been a very im-
portant part of my life since I became a
member of the Church at the age of 11.
It was responsible for a great deal of my
religious upbringing. From the time I
first started reading it, it seemed as if
every issue was written especially for my
particular needs at the time. I will al-
ways be grateful for the "Era of Youth."
Jerold E. Gray
United States Air Force
Ft. Wolters, Texas
Pull out "Era of Youth"
We have been subscribers of the Era
since 1963, when we first became mem-
bers of the Church. We derive much
benefit from the articles and conference
reports. However, my husband and I
feel that the "Era of Youth" is largely
wasted in that it is attached to the main
body of the magazine. Obviously, only
one person can read the magazine at
once and with all our other reading, re-
quired and otherwise, we find that it is
necessary for one of us to be reading
one month's issue while the other is
reading the other. If the "Era of Youth"
were a complete "lift-out," it would, I am
sure, be far more appealing to the youth,
for it would be their very own publica-
tion, something that they could file per-
sonally and refer to from time to time. As
it is, by the time mum and dad have
finished with the magazine, they cannot
be bothered to read it. For years we have
The Spoken Word
Richard L. Evans
Careers — Credentials — Competence
There are pressing and important decisions that many must make
—concerning school, careers, credentials, competence— a subject
always timely for those who are tired, and who, while tired, may
make some shortsighted decisions. It may also be time to say some-
thing to those who have dropped out along the way, before they
were as fully qualified as they could be or should be— those who have
decided they're all through so far as further training is concerned— and
who may have decided this too soon. Increasingly it is apparent that
muscles are really not enough, and that an untrained mind, however
good, is not enough. It is a time when the demand diminishes for
those less skillful, less competent, less technically trained. But it is
also a time when the opportunities and openings are limitless for
the minds and hands of those who are. willing to learn and to discipline
themselves. With knowledge, skill, character, mental and manual
facility, there are limitless ways for a person to make a happier use-
fulness for himself, a better life for loved ones, a greater service to
community and country. It is good to be willing to work, but better
to be prepared to work at something specific. And all who too soon
have supposed they have learned enough, done enough, so far as
competence is concerned, would well ask themselves what they would
really like to be, what they would really like to be doing, five years
from now, or ten, or maybe more. As long as we live, we'll be doing
something with life. It may be something we like or something we
dislike. It may be something that is needed, or something not very
much needed. And the rewards generally will be measured according
to competence, and so will the satisfactions. Time goes no matter
what we do with it, whether we use it to prepare and skillfully perform,
or use it to putter and loaf along. Those who are looking ahead at
life had just as well decide to be something they want to be, to make
the effort, to stay with it, to qualify for it, and not rely on hazy hopes.
Decide to "make the most of yourself, for that is all there is to you." 1
J Ralph Waldo Emerson.
*"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square,
presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System May 25, 1969. Copyright 1969.
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your copies of
Improvement ■ Wt ^^^mk
The Improvement Era
79 South State Street
Salt Lake City, Utah 84111
Lest We Forget
By Albert L. Zobell, Jr.
• Almost every Sunday School
lad can tell the story of
the Angel Moroni's three visits to the
bedside of the Prophet Joseph
Smith, through the night of
September 21-22, 1823, and how
when young Joseph was
working with his father the next
morning he felt ill, and started
to the house. While
climbing a fence he fell, and the
Angel instructed him to return
and tell his father of the night before.
The Prophet's mother,
Lucy Mack Smith, in her History of
Joseph Smith, adds some details.
When the family was
together that ensuing evening,
Joseph made known to them
all that he had told his father in the
field, and of his visit to the
Hill Cumorah, where the Angel
had shown him the Book of Mormon
record but had forbidden him
to take it yet.
Sensing that Joseph was
fatigued by the events of the day,
his eldest brother, Alvin, suggested:
"Now, brother, let us go to bed,
and rise early in the morning,
in order to finish our day's work at an
hour before sunset, then,
if mother will get our suppers early,
we will have a fine long evening,
and we will all sit down
for the purpose of listening to you
while you tell us the great
things which God has revealed to you."
(Lucy Mack Smith, History
of Joseph Smith [Salt Lake City:
Stephens & Wallis, Inc., 1945], p. 81.)
The next evening at sunset,
Joseph gave his family the charge
that his experiences were
not yet to be known beyond that
family circle. He then
related further particulars of the
work that he was appointed to do,
and his family received that
Joseph continued to receive
instructions from the Lord, and from
that time forth his father and
mother continued to bring the
children together each evening for
the purpose of listening to
him. Mother Smith relates: "I presume
our family presented an
aspect as singular as any that
ever lived upon the face of the
earth — all seated in a circle,
father, mother, sons and daughters,
and giving the most profound
attention to a boy, eighteen
years of age, who had never read the
Bible through in his life;
he seemed much less inclined to
the perusal of books than
any of the rest of our children, but
far more given to meditation
and deep study.
"We were now confirmed in
the opinion that God was about to
bring to light something . . .
that would give us a more perfect
knowledge of the plan of
salvation and the redemption of the
human family. This caused us
greatly to rejoice, the sweetest
union and happiness pervaded our
house, and tranquility reigned
in our midst.
"During our evening conversations,
Joseph would occasionally
give us some of the most amusing
recitals that could be
imagined. He would describe the
ancient inhabitants of this
continent, their dress, mode of
traveling, and the animals upon which
they rode; their cities, their
buildings, with every particular;
their mode of warfare; and also
their religious worship. This
he would do with as much ease,
seemingly, as if he had
spent his whole life among them."
(Ibid., pp. 82-83.)
Elder Eldred G. Smith, Patriarch to
the Church and third-
great-grandson of the Prophet's
father, Joseph, said: "This
sounds like the first family home
evening of this dispensation,"
as he addressed the 137th semiannual
general conference of the
Church. (The Improvement Era,
December 1967, p. 82.) O
Richard L. Evans
The Spoken Word
Does anyone know of a better bet?
% %/ / e were not at all surprised that spring returned, that trees
V A /budded, that flowers bloomed, that leaves came back— nor
V Vare we surprised about the coming of summer. Nor were we at
all surprised that the sun came up this morning, or that the moon shows
itself in its times and seasons. We are no more surprised than a chem-
ist is when he puts precise ingredients through a precise process and
arrives at predictable results. And we have almost ceased to be sur-
prised that men can orbit the earth, the moon, and return with pre-
cisely predetermined plan and performance. This beauty, this majesty,
this power and order— all this is evidence of a magnificent mind, a
plan, a purpose, a planner, a Creator, a God and Father in whose hands
all of us are, and who has "given a law unto all things, by" which
they move in their times and their seasons" 1 — as all Creation moves
its wondrous course. Now it is no further reach of reality that this
same magnificent mind, this same administrator, has given us laws,
commandments, requirements for the fullest living of life. And just
as surely as spring returns, as summer follows, as surely as the sun
showed itself this morning— just so surely as the physical processes
are predictable, just so surely will the spiritual and moral laws lead
to results in our lives. Just so surely shall we realize the results of
the kind of lives we live. To turn a moment to the vernacular: I would
have bet my life that spring would come again, that summer
would follow, that the sun would have shown itself this morning. I
would also bet my life on the results of the laws we keep, the lives
we live— the physical laws, the spiritual laws, the moral laws-and on
the results realized in peace and health and happiness, in our hearts
and in our homes, in time and in eternity. I would bet my life on trying
to live and keep the laws, the counsels, the commandments God has
given. Does anyone know of a better bet?
#"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square,
presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System June 1, 1969. Copyright 1969.
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Order from our office „at
79 South State Street
Salt Lake City, Utah 84111
By Dr. G. Homer Durham
President, Arizona State University at Tempe
In life one becomes accustomed
to many admonitions. "Keep the
commandments" is one of them.
The Ten Commandments, disre-
garded as they are, nevertheless
lie heavily on the conscience of
mankind. Non-Bible readers in
most cultures are warned in their
minds not to kill, covet, commit
adultery; to honor parents, and so
forth. These are the old command-
ments. They are good ones to re-
member. They are essential to
maintain, to live by. Law and so-
ciety depend on their observance.
"Keep the commandments."
The admonition comes, sound-
ly enough. Ears, old and young,
listen. Minds assent. Heads nod.
We remind ourselves again of the
Decalogue. We add to them, in our
mentai inventory, tithe paying,
Word of Wisdom keeping, home
teaching, temple-going, church at-
tendance, special assignments,
missionary work, welfare. Some
may go as far as to include self-
improvement, education, talent
development, helping mother
around the house. All are vital, es-
sential, extremely important.
But there are growing signs
that most of us tend to keep the
commandments we do keep in
very, very tidy compartments.
This also has great merit. One
learns to walk one step at a time.
The upward path to progress and
perfection truly involves the ful-
fillment of many duties. But if
performance of duties, command-
ment-keeping, becomes ritualis-
tic; if we do something to get it
over with so we can get back to
television, the newspaper, or fix-
ing the leaky tap, our steps may
not take us much higher.
Those outstanding children of
God, the chosen people of Juda-
ism, found themselves bound
by ritualistic performances. The
Talmud was produced. Learned
scribes arose. Jesus Christ was
accused of Sabbath-breaking by
performing healings on the sacred
day. The Son of God was accused
of blasphemy by leading local
As Jesus neared the end of a
short life, he met with his chosen
Twelve for a last supper in an up-
per room. He washed their feet.
He dipped a sop, handed it to
Judas Iscariot in response to an
inquiry from Simon Peter, relayed
to him through John the Beloved.
Then the Master instructed the
remaining eleven. He gave them,
at the Last Supper, a new com-
mandment. It coincides with the
first and great commandment,
love of God, and with the second,
love of neighbor as one's self —
using the despised Samaritans as
the example, in answer to the
question "who is my neighbour?"
As recorded in John 13:34-35,
Jesus said to the eleven:
"A new commandment I give
unto you, That ye love one an-
other; as I have loved you, that ye
also love one another.
"By this shall all men know that
ye are my disciples, if ye have love
one to another."
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The discourse continues, as re-
corded for us today, through near-
ly five chapters of The Gospel Ac-
cording to St. John. The new
commandment was repeated and
repeated again. The discourse was
then concluded (John 16:33) with
the words: "These things I have
spoken unto you, that in me ye
might have peace. In the world ye
shall have tribulation: but be of
good cheer; I have overcome the
Then the Savior concluded the
instruction with the great prayer
recorded in John, Chapter 17.
That prayer concludes, as record-
ed, with the prayer to the Father
that the new commandment may
"0 righteous Father, the world
hath not known thee: but I have
known thee, and these have known
that thou hast sent me.
"And I have declared unto them
thy name, and will declare it: that
the love wherewith thou hast
loved me may be in them, and I
in them" (John 17:25-26. Italics
Why is it so difficult to remem-
ber the new commandment?
"Keep the commandments."
Why is recall to mind of the new
commandment often, perhaps too
What is right in these times
may well rest on such recollection.
What is wrong in these times —
cold war, hot war, murder, strife,
poverty, unrest, distress — may
well remain wrong until the new
commandment strikes the minds
of individual men and women with
Much in the world is old. The
new commandment is ever new.
So new is it, indeed, that it may
have hardly been discovered by
some. Where it is known, the test
of discipleship provides the great-
est satisfactions of life and gives
meaning to all other command-
A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price
Part 8 (Continued)
It «V'i i
1 " : '^V
I ^-- ■«' •>'
Facsimile No.l, by the Figures
• A Hawk With a Message
If we really want to know what Fac-
simile No. 1 is depicting, the hawk in
the picture is our best clue yet. For
recently the hawk has turned out to
be the hero of a significant little drama
that ties many things together. From
here on the reader might as well know
that this writer intends to show that
the Book of the Dead fragments, the
Breathing Papyrus, and the three fac-
similes, that is, all the available Egyp-
tian materials that were once in the
possession of Joseph Smith, contain
the elements of a single story, which
happens to be the story of Abraham as
told in the Book of Abraham and the
early Jewish legends. Such a statement
sounds wild enough at this point, but
let us follow the bird as he leads us
into a twilight zone of myth and ritual.
One of the longest and most im-
portant chapters of the Book of the
Dead is No. 78, an "interesting and
elusive spell," as Professor De Buck
called it, having the title "Spell for
assuming the form of a divine falcon."'
E.A.W. Budge appended to his own edi-
tion and translation of the Ani manu-
script "the text of the LXXVIIIth Chap-
ter given by Naville . . . reproduced in
full," because that document was in his
opinion "so very important for the right
understanding of this very interesting
Chapter. 1 "- Dr. Budge's confidence in
his right understanding of the docu-
ment was, to say the least, premature
if we take the later studies of the same
chapter by De Buck (1949), Drioton
(1953), and Brunner (1961) as a
standard, for unless that trio are hope-
lessly at sea, Budge had no understand-
By Dr. Hugh Nibley
ing of the text whatever.
It was in 1949 that Professor De
Buck, in the process of editing the Cof-
fin Texts, called attention to his dis-
covery that what he called "the earliest
version of the Book of the Dead 78" was
to be found in a much earlier Coffin
Text, Spell 312. :i As everyone knows,
the Book of the Dead is a relatively late
production in Egypt, and the Joseph
Smith Papyrus belongs to a late period.
But Professor De Buck's find showed
that what we have in these documents
is not a late composition but only a late
copy. The Coffin Text version of Chap-
ter 78 can be traced clear back to the
XII and even the IX Dynasties, 1 and it
is remarkably close to the much later
Book of the Dead copy. Politely and
cautiously, Professor De Buck pointed
out that in view of the new understand-
ing of Chapter 78 of the Book of the
Dead as provided by the older Coffin
Text version, "it is difficult to suppress
the feeling of skepticism as to the in-
telligibility of the Book of the Dead
version, not so much of its separate
sentences, which as a rule arc not diffi-
cult to translate, but above all things
of the plot and story of the spell as a
Budge had had no trouble translating
the separate sentences, but the sentences
put together made no sense, or rather
made the kind of sense habitually at-
tributed to the Egyptians. Contrary to
what one might suppose, to possess a
real clue to what De Buck calls "the
plot and story of the spell as a whole"
is far more important than having a
well-preserved text. Every student
knows that if he is aware of what is
going on in a text, it is not too difficult
to piece together the scattered fragments
of it even when they are very small and
few — Professor J. H. Wilson demon-
strated this in his skillful reconstruction
of the Book of the Dead fragments of
the Joseph Smith collection. 7 But if one
is not aware of what is going on, even
a complete text only befuddles and
confuses — and this is clearly illustrated
in the case of Dr. Budge, who had in
his possession fully 90 percent of the
story as it is told in Coffin Text 312,
and yet was totally unaware of the
plot and story, characters, dialogue,
setting, and significance of the drama.
He didn't even suspect that what lay
before him in Book of the Dead Chap-
ter 78 were the remains of a well-
constructed drama; for him such a thing
simply did not exist, but instead he saw
only a disconnected jumble of primi-
tive charms reflecting an infantile and
half-savage mentality. Lacking the key
that was later discovered, Professor
Budge, a giant of scholarship if there
ever was one, goes on solemnly and
diligently adding sentence to sentence
and note to note as he builds up his
imposing edifice of laborious nonsense,
nonsense that the world has been
taught to think of as quintessentially
There is a fable for critics in this,
but also a lesson for those who would
criticize the critics. For Budge was, in
fact, following his Egyptian scribes
where they led him, and they had long
since lost the trail — they too were quite
unaware of the nature of the document
they were perpetuating. s Even Profes-
sor De Buck, when he went back to
what he called "the original version of
the Book of the ticsd 78," was quite
aware that though the more ancient
texts were "more correct" than any
Book of the Dead version, they were
still far from being the true original of
the story. Granted "that the contents
of the spells were already enigmatic
and obscure to the writers and readers
of the Book of the Dead," 9 the errors
that led them astray and the attempts
to correct those errors (attempts that
only made things worse) were already
of great age: "Already in the manu-
scripts of the Coffin Texts this process
is in full swing." 10
Professor Drioton, following up and
reviewing De Buck's work, saw in Cof-
fin Text 312 instead of an original
composition the work of a compiler,
whose object was to supply a bundle
of magical-sounding writings (regard-
less of sense or meaning) for the funer-
ary market, and who to do so busily
rummaged among heaps of old religious
books, the accumulated debris of the
ages, arid came up at random with this
particular dramatic text. 11 In butcher-
ing the text to suit his purpose, the
writer of Coffin Text 312, with char-
acteristic sloppiness, spared "by in-
advertence a few designations of persons
and scenic indications," which are
enough to supply modern scholars with
the key to the story, but were of course
overlooked by the later copyists of the
Book of the Dead. 12 Professor Brunner
in the latest study notes that "the liter-
ary character of the text has suffered
frightfully in being taken over into the
corpus of funerary literature," whether
of the Coffin Texts or the Book of the
Dead, ffsj dramatic form having been
effectively obscured. 13 "Actually," he
observes, "our Coffin Text was origi-
nally no funerary text at all," being
"clumsily" ad-apt ed as such. 1 '
But now to our story. The leading-
character is the messenger-bird, who is
dressed as a hawk in imitation of Horns.
Professor Drioton prefaces his discus-
sion of the play with a very informative
lecture on what the Egyptians did and
did not mean by a "transformation,"
the upshot of which is that the Egyp-
tian never at any time conceived of the
transformations into animal, bird, or
other forms as being literal, "for noth-
ing was ever farther from their men-
tality than ideas of metempsychosis." 1 " 1
So in what follows we are to show the
Egyptians the courtesy of never imagin-
ing our messenger-bird as a real hawk.
Drioton would entitle the play "The
Misadventures of a Messenger of
Horus," which makes it a comedy. 1 r '
Dr. De Buck designated the leading
character as "the Messenger or media-
tor," while Brunner prefers to call him
"Der Lichtgeist" or Spirit af Light, as
the messenger calls himself.
The play Opens with "Osiris, stunned
by the blows of Seth, hiding out' in
Busiris." And so the scene is set in
Busiris, the place of Osiris's sacrificial
death and the center of human sacrifice
in Egypt from the earliest to the latest
times. There we find the god laid out
for burial in his underground crypt
("enseveli sous terre"), lying helpless,
dazed, beaten, exhausted, but not quite
dead, for as the play opens he is pray-
ing desperately for deliverance: "O
Horus, come I beseech thee to Busiris
and rescue me!" 17 He begs the god to
behold him in his dire distress and to
restore his power and dominion, "that
the gates of hell might not prevail
against me. . ." (69f). This last is as
good a rendering as any of what is trans-
lated, "that the gates may beware of
me" (De Buck), "defend me from the
gates of Dat [the Underworld]" (Brun-
ner), or "that the gates be vigilant in
my behalf" (Drioton); all having the
common idea that the gates of the
underworld shall operate for and not
against the hero. He then prays that
his relentless enemy be not allowed to
pursue him further or discover how
helpless he really is in his hiding place
(69g-70a-b). In one of the Coffin Text
inscriptions (TIC) the ideogram for
the helplessness of the god shows him
on the lion-couch; that this is more
than a meaningless convention is indi-
cated in T. G. Allen's edition of the
Book of the Dead, where Chapter 85
is headed by a vignette of a figure of a
lion-couch under the fra-bird "with an
unerased falcon head" (!) and is en-
titled "Spell for assuming the form of
a Soul and not entering the place of
execution." "Dying is my abomina-
tion,;' says the figure on the lion-
couch; "I enter not into the execution
place of the Nether World." 18 Here
the lion-couch vignette matches the
lion-couch scenes of the temples of
Opet, Sethi I, Philae, etc., as well as the
situation in the play: it is not an em-
balming but an attempted execution
that concerns us.
To the prayer of the one on the
couch, a chorus of gods (or in manu-
script D1C of common people) adds a
fervid "Amen!" (70c, ir myy, "let it be
done accordingly"), and then a sort of
Choregos appears and cries, "Be silent,
O ye people [or gods] while a god
speaks to a god!" (70e-71a). The
dialogue that follows is as astonishingly
like a piece of Greek drama as what
has gone before, for Horus appears
dressed as a hawk and begins with an
aside expressing his hope that the suf-
fering Osiris will heed the Truth. He
advises Osiris to consider his condition
most carefully and specially to make
an effort to free himself (71c-72f), even
joking about his helplessness and sham-
ing him into action (72g-73b). This
reminds one very much of the "pep-
talk" the two ladies give to Osiris as
they help him revive on the lion-couch,
and Drioton and Brunner both detect
a distinct note of challenge and banter
in the speech. But then comes the
surprise. Having done the best he can
to boost his father's morale, Horus an-
nounces that he is going back to heaven
to "beg and request of the Lord of
All" (73d) that he be endowed with
the necessary authority to carry out the
mission his father desires of him.
All our editors are surprised and
puzzled by this: Horus comes as a
hawk in answer to his father's prayer
and apparently refuses to help him!
Brunner, who gave the closest thought
to the problem, concluded that Horus
could not help his father until he had
obtained a certain crown, representing
plenary power in heaven and on earth,
which he could only get by going
to heaven and petitioning "the Lord
of All"; this, Brunner avers, is the crux
of the whole drama. 19 Actually, Horus
does not refuse his father's request,
since in the end he faithfully carries
it out, but first he explains that he
must "go hence to the limits of the
heavens to speak a word with Geb
[the second of the godhead] and to re-
quest and beseech the Lord of All to
grant me hwi" (73c-e), where hwi
means, according to Brunner, "Be-
fehlsgewalt" — the authority to give
In Brunner's analysis the real drama
is enacted between Horus and Osiris,
the true leading characters, who appear
only twice, first at the beginning, when
their dramatic dialogue provides a
clear exposition of the play, and again
at the end, when Horus returns to the
scene and repeats word for word the
prayer with which Osiris opened the
drama — the prayer that he is now at
last qualified to fulfill. "The text be-
gins," he writes, "with the plaintive
supplication of Osiris that Horus come
to his aid. ... It ends with a corona-
tion hymn to Horus as heir to the
throne." 21 Such is the gist of the story:
Osiris in his crypt cries out for de-
liverance, and a heavenly messenger,
describing himself as a hawk, appears,
whereupon the hero is rescued and tri-
umphantly enthroned. It is our well-
known Sed-festival and lion-couch
But in between the prayer and its
fulfillment there is a hitch, a real
problem of such stuff as plays are
made of. It is no small thing to raise
the dead, and the question of Horus's
power to do so as a junior member of
the firm gives an opportunity for an
interesting development of the theme.
It is a third party, "the Messenger of
Horus," as Drioton calls him, who takes
over and provides the real entertain-
ment and fully two-thirds of the spoken
lines of the play.-- This character is
also dressed as a hawk and wants very
badly to be taken for Horus. Who is
he? Bearing in mind that in all known
versions of the play and in all the
translations there is a great shuffling
and conflicting of personal pronouns,
with no two copyists or translators
agreeing as to exactly who is speaking
or doing what or to whom most of the
time, I believe that the second hawk
can still be identified clearly by his
words and actions.
As soon as the true Horus has left
the crypt of the helpless Osiris to
charge himself with new power in the
courts on high, another hawk appears.
He is called "the Messenger of Horus,"
"the Mediator," "the Spirit of Light,"
by our translators, but never is he
designated, as he would like to be, as
just plain Horus. He begins by an-
nouncing that he is "one who dwells
in radiance" (74g), boasts that he has
priority in age and honor over the real
Horus (76b-c), vaunts his great magi-
cal powers (76d-e), claims to be no less
than the "elect and appointed" one,
first among "the beings who dwell in
the Radiance" (76f), enjoying the high-
est glory in the preexistence among
those begotten in the spiritual creation
(76f-g), having received even at that
time the full authority of Horus (76i-
77a). "He is really too much of a
braggart, this messenger of Horus,"
writes Professor Drioton; "that is no
doubt the comic element in the play."- ;i
The Messenger swaggers up to the
gate and demands access to Osiris, but
is firmly checked and put in his place
by Rwty, the doorkeeper. Rwty is the
double-headed lion who guards the
entrance (one head) and the exit (the
other) to the other world — we have
already noted the Egyptian conceit
that holy and inapproachable places
are guarded by lions. Rwty points out
to the Messenger that though he may
look exactly like Horus, he can't get by
because he lacks the nemes-crown, "the
insignia of gods and men." (Drioton.)
The nemes-crown, which Drioton char-
acterizes as a "cache-perruque" and
T. G. Allen calls a turban, seems to
have been a sort of white cloth cap.' 21
Brunner, as we have seen, considers it
the main property of the play, since it
represents the authority without which
the mission of the Horus-messenger
cannot be carried out — lacking this
badge of authority the true Horus is
helpless and the false one is a fraud.
Instead of producing the cap, how-
ever, or going to fetch it as the first
Horus did, "the messenger backs down"
(Drioton), covering up his embarrass-
ment with bluster, insisting that he is
the authentic representative of Horus
and is entrusted with awesome knowl-
edge, having been made privy to the
great secrets imparted by Osiris to his
son "through the partition." 25 His
foolish indiscretion is at once chal-
lenged by Rwty: " 'Repeat to me then
what Horus said as his father's word
through the partition . . . and' I will
give you the nemes-crown, 1 so said
Rwty" (78d-f). His bluff is called
again; the Messenger is speechless,
saved from his painful or comical pre-
dicament only when the real "Horus
appears, he who is behind the injured
eye" (79c-d), which Brunner inter-
prets as "hinter seiner geraubten Herr-
schaft," indicating that someone, plain-
ly the other hawk, has stolen his
authority. By command of a voice
from above, the true Horus is passed
by the doorkeeper and goes on his way
singing a lyric ode right out of Aristo-
phane's Birds on the exhilaration of
travel through space — another indica-
tion that he is the true Horus-hawk.
It is odd that the scholars studying
the text did not recognize the wild-
blue-yonder motif: the joyful, un-
trammeled motion through the void
(80a), mounting to the heights as a
hawk (80b), endowed by Rwty with
wings (80d), sitting on a dizzy perch
amidst the four mighty winds (80e),
undismayed by fear of falling in empty
space (80f), confident in one's power
and beauty (80g), never losing one's
way through the trackless skies (81a),
buoyed and sustained by the very
winds that terrify mortals (81b), un-
deterred and undaunted by the raging
tempest (81c). It has all the makings
of a lovely Euripidean ode.
When the true Horus has departed,
the rascal restores his self-confidence
by remarking, probably to himself,
that of course he could not tell the
secret words, because if he did "the
pillars of heaven would pursue me,
after punishing my presumption"
(82a). And so, as impudent as ever,
he resumes his boasting: "I am the
hawk who dwells in glory (82b), en-
joying my own authority and my own
princely crown!" (82c). "But," as Pro-
fessor Drioton puts it, "this gets him
nowhere"; he is checked again, this
time by Akr, another gate-keeping
lion (82e), but again the real Horus
shows up and again is cleared by the
imperious voice of "the Supreme Lord"
speaking from heaven and demanding
clearance for his ambassador: "Let no
one oppose this spirit [my?] alter-ego,
representative, member of the staff,
the top-ranking Horus!" (82f). The
voice continues to vouch for the true
Horus in no uncertain terms (82g-k),
Here are the
Egyptians, telling us of
"Lucifer, the Son
of the Morning
stating that he is under orders to see
Osiris in Busiris and is under no cir-
cumstances to be detained, since he
comes on assignment from "the Great
Palace" itself (821-p), and is to be
denied no aid and assistance wher-
ever he comes on pain of severe dis-
pleasure in heavenly places (83a-d).
The false messenger, in the manner
of the clever slave in the New Comedy,
gleefully arrogates all this authority
to himself — after all, isn't he the very
image of Horus? — and, more obnoxious
than ever, begins to lord it over every-
body in sight. That at least is one
way of interpreting the speech that
follows, beginning "Down on your
faces!" and ending with a resounding
"Horus has spoken!" (83i-l). 2 ' 5 In the
following speech he describes himself
as a follower of Horus, the Lord of All
(841), a companion of Horus rather
than Horus himself. Of course it is the
real Horus who finally penetrates into
the crypt, passing the guardians of the
underworld castle of Osiris (84m-85f)
and carrying out all instructions (85h).
The rival, however, still seems to be at
it, claiming that he too has the power
to go below: "Horus has invested me
with his ha, I have his authority!"
(85i-j), and demanding that the mys-
teries and secret places of the lower
worlds be opened to him, since he has
a message from Horus to his father
(851-p). The keepers of the under-
world announce the arrival of a visi-
tor to Osiris (86c-g), whose reply is
not preserved. From here we go di-
rectly to the final acclamation and
coronation scene, as the proper wind-
up to any ancient comedy or mum-
Who is the comic character who
tries to crash the gates of Rwty, Aker,
Isis, and Osiris in that order?- 7 His
"clumsy personal behavior," the "bur-
lesque intermezzi" in which he struts
"m pathetische-karrihierender Weise,"
makes good theater, according to Brun-
ner, and his presence introduces the
dramatic elements of intrigue, dilemma,
and pungency into the play, according
to Drioton. But he is a clown and an
incompetent; by what right does he
usurp the honors of Horus in a re-
At right, the Joseph Smith papyri contain this representation of the four canopic
figures standing upon a symbolic lotus, signifying all the regions of the earth
over which Pharaoh holds sway. In the Explanation to Facsimile No. 1, we are
told that the canopic figures represent regional deities; in Facsimile No. 2 (Fig. 6)
we also learn that the quartet "represents this earth in its four quarters."
ligious drama? His epithets at first
sight suggest his identity: Who is the
Spirit of Light but Lucifer, the Son
of the Morning, boasting of his pre-
existent glory, first in the councils of
heaven, claiming priority of age and
honor over Horus himself, boasting of
his knowledge and power, his kingdom
and great glory, who would fain claim
the crown but does not have it; who
claims to know the answers but cannot
deliver when they are required of him
at a certain time and place? Who but
the Adversary, the Deceiver, "Satan . . .
transformed into an angel of light"?
(2 Cor. 11:14.) As if to leave us in no
doubt, he describes himself as one of a
serpent host who was on hand "before
Isis came into being . . ." (76c).
Strange that he should mention himself
as a serpent stealing the march on Isis,
the Egyptian Eve. He covets the honors
of the son: "To be sure, you have the
form of Horus," says Rwty to him (De
Buck's translation), "but you do not
possess the nemes-crown" (77d-e) ; he
never gets it.
But how can the Messenger of Light
be an impostor if, as we are expressly
told (73f-74f), he was commissioned
by the real Horus to take his place,
assume his form, and exercise his au-
thority? The men who copied down
our texts, being as far removed from
the original version as we are, had to
explain the close resemblance between
the two hawks as best they could, and
the readiest explanation was, of course,
that hawk No. 2 had been duly autho-
rized to double for hawk No. 1: indeed,
how could the other hawk get away
with his masquerade save by express
permission of the real Horus? Actually,
that is by no means the only possible
explanation or even the best, since the
messenger's masquerade was after all
not successful, but constantly got him
into awkward and comical predica-
»: . W «■ . ■*
w m 0! m m ♦ *> m m mm * m m m
I A «**f i A
Facsimile No. 1, Figures 5 through 8: "The idolatrous gods" of "Elkenah, Mahmackrah, Korash.
Above, Pharaoh worshiping the four
canopic figures as deities — "idola-
trous gods." This plainly shows that
the four figures are more than mere
funerary furniture, as Joseph Smith's
critics have maintained.
An old Assyrian version of the lion-
couch scene, at left, shows that the
theme is to be found in the Chaldaean
as well as the Egyptian spheres of
ments. It was plainly his idea, not that
of the real Horus, to pass himself off
as the true son and heir: the clever,
vicious imposture is a basic part of the
ritual drama, in which Seth rivals
Horus at every point. In this version
of the story he struts and clowns as a
Lord of Misrule while the king lies in
the tomb, but he constantly stubs his
toe, to the delight of the crowd, and is
put in his place when the real heir
appears and takes the throne.
All this is pertinent to the lion-
couch story. In all the Jewish legends
telling of the rescue of Abraham, the
hero's prayer from the altar is answered
by the appearance of an angel, usually
Gabriel, sometimes Michael, who asks
whether he should save him from his
fate. Invariably the Patriarch replies
by declining the offer of assistance with
the explanation that he expects God
and God alone to save him. In some
cases (to be treated below) he even
tells the angel that he refuses to deal
with one having inadequate authority.
This, of course, is the final test for
Abraham, who at this point has demon-
strated that he trusts God all the way,
and so at this moment he hears the
voice of God speaking to him and at the
same time is delivered from a sacrificial
death. In the Book of Abraham we
meet with the same peculiar and there-
fore significant complication: "And as
they lifted up their hands upon me,
that they might offer me up and take
away my life, behold, I lifted up my
voice unto the Lord my God, and the
Lord hearkened and heard . . . and the
angel of his presence stood by me, and
immediately unloosed my bands; And
his voice was unto me: Abraham, Abra-
ham, behold, my name is Jehovah, and
/ have heard thee, and have come down
to deliver thee. . . ." (Abr. 1:15-16.
Italics added.) Just what, is the angel's
role in this? Whenever the real hawk
Papyrus No. 1
is a sacrificial scene,
says the author
appears in the version of Coffin Text
312, the voice of Atum is heard from
the heavens and the hird passes on
But that is not the only complica-
tion. The legends all agree in telling
of how at the last moment before the
sacrifice, just before the angel appeared
to Abraham, another party stood by the
altar, Satan, no less, magnificently
attired in black silk, and offered to
deliver the Patriarch and bestow great
power and dominion upon him if he
would only recognize his authority and
do obeissance to Nimrod, his protege.
He was, of course, denounced and dis-
missed by Abraham without argument,
but could we not have here an echo of
the two delivering angels, one true
and one false? The plain designation
of the false Messenger in Coffin Text
312 as "The Spirit of Light" and his
failure to pass any of the tests of the
true Messenger from God provide an
impressively close parallel.
The drama of Coffin Text 312 closes
with the usual acclamation and corona-
tion; "O Osiris, thou are exalted upon
thy throne; thy heart liveth! Thy mem-
bers are rejuvenated, thy heart re-
joiceth! (86h-j). Thou hast overcome
Seth;, Geb hath placed thee on the
throne of succession (85k-l). Let there
be a roll call of all the followers of the
god and all their offerings (85m-n),
while the Great President sits at the
head of the Council of the Gods, hav-
ing turned over all this authority
[hwi, power to command] to Horus,
the Son of Osiris (85r-s), who accord-
ingly has taken over the government
of Egypt; all are subject to him (85u).
And now he feasts with the multitude —
he gives life to millions, he alone
through the Eye of the Mistress of the
'Universe." (86v-w.) All of this reads
exactly like the liturgy of an early
Roman year-rite,- s and fits nicely into
the Sed festival; and not the least im-
portant aspect of the winding-up
scene is the application of the whole
thing to the ruler of Egypt: it is for his
benefit that the whole thing is staged.
The fragments that make up Coffin
Text 312 are from, I believe, the third
part of a trilogy in which the first play
or act was the famous Prologue in
Heaven, the second the conflict with
Seth from its beginning to its direful
end, from which the hero emerges in
his parlous plight at the beginning of
the third act. The two earlier epi-
sodes are clearly alluded to in the
text, in the vivid little flashbacks to
the Messenger's role in the preexistence
and in the passing reference to Seth
as the enemy (the only time he is men-
tioned) in 85k. The first two acts or
plays are well represented in Egyptian
literature, e.g. in the Shabako text and
the stories of Horus versus Seth, but
the third one has been hidden behind
the veil of the Osiris mysteries. A
great deal of work remains to be done
here. But now it is time to consider
the next figure of the Joseph Smith
Facsimile No. 1, Fig. 3. "The idola-
trous priest of Elkenah, attempting to
offer up Abraham as a sacrifice." The
first thing to notice is that "the priest
of Elkenah was also the priest of
Pharaoh" (Abr. 1:7), since "at this
time it was the custom [a peculiar
custom, apparently, and one of limited
duration] of the priest of Pharaoh, the
king of Egypt, to offer up upon the
altar which was built in the land of
Chaldea . . ." (Abr. 1:8). A priest was
taking the place of Pharaoh in this
Question: Because Pharaoh was away
Answer: Not necessarily. Rather,
because it was the custom for a priest
to do so. The office was properly the
king's but of course he needed as-
sistance. A recent study explains that
"pharaoh also acted as High Priest.
Being a son of a god he could mediate
between heaven and earth. Theoreti-
cally each offering was done by the
pharaoh. . . " 34
Q: The priest was only his helper?
A: Yes. As Drioton and Vandier put
it, "only the king could offer sacrifices.
. . . Actually the clergy carried on for
him . . . but only as a substitute for
the royal person." 35 We have seen that
the picture of Pharaoh personally sac-
rificing the enemy chief "is found again
and again in every period" of the
Egyptian record, and the sacrificial
liturgy makes it perfectly clear that
the priest is merely taking the king's
place. 3 " Hence the showdown between
Abraham and the man with the knife
is really the encounter between the
prophet and the monarch, no matter
who holds the weapon. Likewise the
priest could either wear a jackal mask 37
or simply be bald, as shown in the
facsimile: the Salt Papyrus, in fact,
specifies that the sacrificing priest be
'Footnotes 29-33 have been omitted.
bald (fkty).** No matter how you view
him, he is a hostile figure.
Q: Why do you say that?
A: I am thinking of that striking-
passage from Diodorus (I, 91) which
tells how the embalming priest who
made the first incision in the body
with a prehistoric flint sword was
cursed, stoned, and driven out as a
murderer. Whether the priest in the
picture is an undertaker or not, he is
still wielding the sacrificial knife. In
Egypt all sacrifices were ritual murder.
Q: Even of grains or vegetables?
A: Even over grains and vegetables
the priest would wave the king's an-
cient battle-mace as a reminder that
whatever was being sacrificed was the
Pharaoh's enemy and victim. 39
Q: Where is the knife in the Joseph
A: That part of the document has
been destroyed, but there is ample rea-
son for believing that it was there
when the facsimile was engraved. 10
If every embalming was a sacrifice,
every sacrifice was also an execution,
as we have just seen. The priest who
sacrifices the oryx says to the king: "I
make thine arm victorious over the
rebels, I place thine enemy under thy
knife." 11 In the mysteries of Osiris
the emphasis is on violence as the
figure on the couch is surrounded by
demons with drawn knives — a peace-
ful embalming operation is not the
Q: I can see that a knife might be
the most likely thing for the priest to
be holding, but doesn't he hold other
things instead in the other Anubis
A: Anubis standing by the bier
usually holds a jar of ointment or a
bandage in his upraised hand, but I
think this figure was different.
Q: How different?
A: In all the scenes I have ever seen
in which the Anubis priest holds those
objects in his left hand, his right hand
is equally conspicuous, stretched out
lower than the other arm over the
body, palm down, in a stock ritual
gesture strictly prescribed by the
canons of funerary art. But what have
we in our papyrus? No right arm
at all! It is hard, in view of the rigidly
established standard forms, to avoid
the impression that the artist is con-
sciously avoiding that other arm. The
priest is not an embalmer.
Q: But why does he hold the knife
in his left hand?
A: He really doesn't. It is just shown
that way. A number of studies have
demonstrated that the Egyptian artist
always drew people in the right pro-
file whenever he could, "while the left
profile is shown as a mirror-image." 43
So our priest is properly shown in right
profile. But at the same time "in a two-
dimensional drawing the Egyptian
artist was afraid of criss-crossing," so
he simply put the knife in the other
hand. Comparison of Egyptian draw-
ings and statues reveals that when a
figure is shown as left-handed in a
drawing, the same figure in the same
attitude is seen to be right-handed in
his statue, which proved to Professor
Mueller that the left-handedness of
the drawn figures is merely a conven-
tion to avoid the crossing of arms."
In Papyrus No. I the left-handedness of
the priest, like the awkward position
of his legs, is an unavoidable conse-
quence of telling a particular story:
it comes from the necessity of having
the two main figures oppose each other.
The preference of Egyptian artists for
the right profile is one of the canons of
their art and belongs to the same order
that requires hieroglyphic figures to
face toward the beginning of a text,
so that the procession seems to move
Q: Why is that?
A: Supposedly because the proces-
sion must start from a holy shrine or
person, and since no one may turn his
back on divinity gods and mortals
must always face each other, i.e. they
must face in opposite directions. Hence
the rule that while mortals are drawn
in right profile, gods must be shown
in the left. 4r> It has been increasingly
clear in recent years that the direction
in which figures face is something to
be taken seriously in understanding
Egyptian art, and it may furnish an
important clue to the meaning of the
Joseph Smith Papyrus.
Q: What do you mean, important
A: Notice that the priest, the lion,
and the crocodile all face in the same
direction, showing their right profiles.
What do they all have in common?
They take life, they are sinister
figures — literally sinister, "on the
left"! In Egyptian common speech, "to
see the face of the crocodile" was to
die, 45a and priest, lion, knife, and
crocodile all show the man on the
couch to be in grave jeopardy. All the
other figures, on the other hand, face
in the opposite direction, the direction
in which the immortals face, all of
them being invested with divine power
to save life: The hawk comes to rescue
the hero; the four canopic figures have
always the function of protecting the
body from harm and assisting in its
resurrection; the lotus (as we shall
see) revives the dead and protects the
living; finally the figure on the couch is
brought face to face with his rival and
would-be destroyer. The whole compo-
sition proclaims the conflict of two
forces. This is emphasized deliberately
by the introduction of figures not found
in other lion-couch scenes — the lotus
and the crocodile, which to the Egyp-
tian mind represent the ultimate
extremes respectively of destruction and
preservation. Having taken such spe-
cial pains to give a particular interpre-
tation to the scene, the artist cannot
be denied the privilege of putting such
an object as a knife in the priest's
hand. Notice in the facsimile how
that knife dominates the picture — it is
exactly in the center of vision and
exactly half-way between the eye of
Abraham and the eye of the priest; it
is the focal point of the whole scene,
as it should be.
Q: You spoke of a sacrificial knife
as a primitive flint sword. Is this that
kind of knife?
A: The knife depicted in the first
Hedlock engraving has very much the
shape and size of some of the prehis-
toric ceremonial knives used by the
Egyptians. In Chapter 71 of the Book
of the Dead the sacrificial knife is
described as representing the crescent
moon, the officiant being Thoth, the
moon-god. 1 5b
Q: You have said that the lion and
the crocodile have a necessary and
sacred function to perform in the lion-
couch situation. Does that apply also
to the knife?
A: Yes, and to the priest too, as we
shall see. According to Kees, the dead-
ly wounds inflicted by the knife are
really the "victim's" introduction to
great things — to hidden knowledge and
to immortality — so that the knife is
really an instrument of transfigura-
tion. 40 This is shown, I think, in the
late Egyptian story of the contest be-
tween Truth and Falsehood, who, of
course, are brothers. Falsehood accuses
Truth of stealing from him a knife
that has miraculous powers, hails him
into court, and has him blinded and
banished for his supposed crime; but
later on the knife itself turns the tables
and inflicts the blows of death — this
time real and final — on Falsehood,
thereby vindicating Truth. So you see
it is both a good knife and a bad
Q: What about the wicked priest —
is he good too?
A: Good or bad, we couldn't do with^
out him. Who, in the end, turns out
to be the real victim of this ritual
violence? It is not Abraham but the
priest. And that is very significant, for
according to the Egyptian stories col-
lected by Wainwright it was the priests
who were always urging Pharaoh to
sacrifice himself or a substitute, and
in the stories in which the intended
victim escapes it is always the priest
himself who ends up getting sacrificed.
This is clearly expressed in the Book
of Abraham: when "the Lord broke
down the altar" he also "smote the
priest that he died" (Abr. 1:20), for he
said, "I have come down ... to destroy
him who hath lifted up his hand
against thee. . . ." (Abr. 1:17. Italics
added.) In the Jewish legends too it
is always the priest who gets killed.
Instead of going into sources here (that
will come later), let us only consider
the famous Busiris vase, a sixth-century
hydria depicting with typical Greek
irreverence and love of fun the climax
of the favorite Greek Egyptian story—
the story of King Busiris. 47
Q: Wasn't Busiris a place?
A: From prehistoric times down to
the Middle Ages Busiris was the tradi-
tional center of human sacrificial rites
in Egypt, and it is from that that the
mythical King Busiris gets his name.
For it was his custom to sacrifice
strangers on his "cruel altars," espe-
cially Greeks. This practice began
during a terrible drought when the
people were starving and the king was,
of course, held responsible. A wise man
and priest coming from Cyprus told the
king that if he would sacrifice a man
every year, the land would prosper.
That got the king off the hook, and
his first victim was appropriately
enough the very priest — blond, noble,
and a stranger — who suggested the
operation to him. 48
Q: And it served him right, too.
A: That was the very idea — the
priests are asking for it. Well, Hercules
heard about this and he didn't like it
at all, so he went to Egypt, and being
both foreign, blond, and of royal —
even divine — lineage, he easily became
a candidate for the sacrifice, allowing
himself to be bound and put on the
altar. But being a demigod with
super strength, he burst his bonds at
the last moment and turned the tables,
and that is what we see in this clever
parody on the Busiris Hydria: Hercules
is making havoc among the panic-
stricken priests while the terrified
high priest, kneeling on the altar, is
praying for his life. And lying bound
and helpless on the step at the foot of
the altar is none other than Pharaoh
himself, identified readily by his
uraeus headdress and his beard. Here,
then, in an early Greek vase quite un-
known to the world of Joseph Smith
is another telling of the story of the
noble captive miraculously escaping
death on the altar of Pharaoh at the
last moment, turning the tables and
killing the priest. Most Greek versions
of the story say that Hercules killed
Pharaoh Busiris too, but some deny
it. 40 It is the priest in the end who
pays the price: Busiris got himself out
of a jam by sacrificing the very priest
who recommended such a welcome
substitute. There are cases in which
the king deliberately "avenged the in-
sult to himself" resulting from the
escape of an intended victim "by hav-
ing the priests put to death as sacri-
fices" instead. 50 Waimvright has ex-
plained how the Pharaoh who thus
saves himself by sacrificing his priest
(who is his proxy anyway!) fulfills
the sacrificial requirements so that
neither he nor any intended victim
need suffer — with the death of the
priest, the full price has been paid."' 1
This device is also essential to the
Q: How essential?
A: As soon as "the Lord . . . smote
the priest that he died" (Abr. 1:20),
the tension between Abraham and
Pharaoh was released. As we have
often pointed out, Abraham was tak-
ing Pharaoh's place on the altar as
his enemy, his rival, and his "tanist."
But suddenly another substitute for the
king, his own high priest, "the priest
of Pharaoh," and as such "nothing but
a substitute for the royal person"
(above, note 35), had died at the
altar instead: Abraham's services were
no longer needed, the King's honor
had been satisfied, and no obstacle
remained -to his paying Abraham the
respect that he now realized (and had
long suspected) was due him. There
is thus no contradiction in having Fac-
simile No. 1 followed by Facsimile No.
3. The whole Abraham story, strange
as it is, is quite in keeping with an-
cient practice and tradition.
The Four Idolatrous Gods:
We return to our imaginary dialogue
between a curator and two students:
Mr. Jones: These four figures, the
canopic jars before the altar, tie every-
thing together. First of all, what does
the Book of Abraham say these four
Jane: "Idolatrous gods." They have
Mr. Jones: Are those the names of
the gods? Look again.
Dick: It says here (Facsimile No. 1,
Figure 5), "The idolatrous god of
Elkenah." (Italics added.)
Mr. Jones: And what does it say in
the preceding sentence?
Dick: ". . •. the gods of Elkenah, Lib-
nah, Mahmackrah. . . ."
Mr. Jones: Yes, these are the gods of
such and such places or persons. Which
do you think it was — places or persons?
I'll give you a hint: in Facsimile 2,
Figure 6, we get the same four critters.
What are they there?
Jane: "Represents this earth in its
Mr. Jones: So those fancy names
probably belong to geographical re-
gions, wouldn't you say?
Dick: Unless the geographical re-
gions are also people.
Mr. Jones: Thanks for that. As far
as the Egyptians were concerned, the
four quarters of the earth were people.
If the Book of Abraham wants to think
of the four canopic jars as represent-
ing idolatrous gods and the four
regions at the same time, that is en-
tirely in keeping with the way the
Egyptians thought about it. Now
right here in the Temple of Opet where
we are so much at home "the genies '
of the four winds" enjoy a conspicuous
display, and why are they there? The
four winds, according to our handbook,
head the list of more than fifty ritual
appearances of the sacred four — it all
began with the four winds and the four
directions, represented as early as the
Pyramid Texts by the four canopic
Jane: What are canopic vases?
Mr. Jones: The four idols before the
lion-couch in Facsimile 1 are the four
canopic vases. As we have seen, they
contained the insides of the person on
the couch, precisely because they rep-
resent the four directions. Let us recall
the famous legend of the Jews that
Adam was made of the four elements,
gathered together as dust from each of
the four quarters of the earth; that
when one dies the elements are scat-
tered to the four directions, and when
one is resurrected they are brought
together again. 53 Well, the Egyptians
had the same idea: man was made in
the beginning by four gods who repre-
sented or rather, according to Brugsch,
were the four elements. 51 Now here at
the Opet shrine in what is called the
Chamber of Spirits, the hero at his
rebirth is being approached by good
spirits bringing him good wishes and
protection on his birthday, and at the
head of the parade come the Gods of
the Four Elements, sometimes eight
of them, sometimes 14. 55
Jane: Just like the good fairies in the
Mr. Jones: Yes, the same tradition is
behind both. Now the mixing up of the
four canopic idols with the four regions
of the universe is found in Egyptian
funerary cult at all times, as Budge
noted: "The four children of Horus
played a very important part in the
funerary work of the early dynasties;
they originally represented the four
supports of heaven, but very soon each
was regarded as the god of one of the
four quarters of the earth, and also of
that quarter of the heavens which was
above it." 50 Whether that is the right
explanation or not, the thing to notice
is that the four figures represent a
number of concepts at once: they are
personalities, "gods," points of the com-
pass, and also kings and divine patrons
of geographical regions: at the same
time they represent the four main stars
of the Dipper, and the four primal
elements of which man and the uni-
verse are made. 57 It is interesting that
this very temple of Opet was built of
four kinds of stone representing the
four basic elements of which the uni-
verse was made. 5s The canopies must
participate at the king's resurrection:
"Crossing the waters to the place of
rebirth" is explained by an Egyptian
gloss as meaning that "it is Anubis
who is behind the vessel containing the
organs of Osiris. . . ." 5i) Our canopic
jars are both for preservation and resur-
rection. "All four gods of the Cardinal
points officiate at the baptism of
Pharaoh," which, as we have seen,
was quadrilateral: "what was poured
out over the King's head," according to
Gardiner, was "divine power . . . the
specific power of each of the gods of
the cardinal points." 00 We have seen
that the Sed-festival is a coronation,
and that according to some the climax
of the festival was the moment when
the king released four birds "toward the
four cardinal points, to announce the
coronation of the king to the four
corners of the earth," which four
corners, according to this authority, are
none other than the four sons of Horus,
represented by the four canopic jars.' 11
Jane: They were surely crazy about
Dick: Just like the Hop is. With them
the four worlds are everything.
Mr. Jones: The number four seems to
have been a sort of obsession with
some ancient people. - If you look up
the four figures represented in the
canopic jars, the first thing you will
learn is that they are supposed to be
the four sons of Horus, and Moret says
the four birds released at the coronation
are also the four sons of Horus. 03 The
four children of Horus began as stars
in the northern sky; ot their names
Imsty, Hpy, Dwamutf and Qbhsnwf
designated the four stars of the Dipper
bowl and seem to go back to the earli-
est times, 05 when they are also identi-
fied with the major cosmic deities. 00
Let's go back to our shrine at Opet,
our "lion-couch" temple. Here in the
central chamber between the lion-
couch room and the coronation room,
above each of the four doors, is a pic-
ture with an inscription telling us
what it is: Above the north door is a
four-headed ram, and the inscription
tells us that he is the North Wind in
its capacity of giving the breath of
eternal life to Osiris. Above the south
door we see another ram, this time with
four wings, and he is called the South
Wind; above the East door a scarab
with four wings — the East Wind, of
course — and above that west door a
hawk with the head of a ram.
Dick: What happened to the four
Mr. Jones: The ram takes care of that,
but he belongs to Facsimile No. 2. A
study of the four winds shows them
taking all sorts of forms: sometimes
the North Wind has two cows' or
bulls' heads plus two human heads;
sometimes it is a ram-headed man
with two wings accompanied by a
ram-headed hawk or else by a four-
headed ram; sometimes it is a ram with
four human heads; or else the South
Wind is a four-winged lion — that is
when it is a hot wind. Though most
of the exotic variations belong to the
later period, the four-winds idea itself
goes back to early times and is men-
tioned in the Pyramid Texts." 7
Dick: You name it, we've got it!
What's it all about?
Mr. Jones: It has been found that all
these combinations have one thing in
common — what Professor De Wit calls
the "quaternary principle"; he suggests
that the whole business originally goes
back to the four winds and probably
started at Heliopolis.
Mr. Jones: On good evidence. Even
one of the Joseph Smith Papyri shows
Jane: Which one?
Mr. Jones: Fragment No. 8 in the
Era listing [February 1968], corre-
sponding to Chapter 57 of the Book of
the Dead. Professor Allen has ren-
dered it: "His nose is open in Busiris.
He rests in Heliopolis. ... If north
winds come, he sits in the south; if
south winds come, he sits in the north;
if west winds come, he sits in the east; if
east winds come, he sits in the west." (;s
Heliopolis is certainly the center of
the system, though the god is revived
in Busiris, the place where he was put
to death. Both motifs, execution and
rescue, are conspicuous in the Joseph
Smith Papyrus No. 1 — the lion-couch
Dick: Do the four winds resurrect
Mr. Jones: Yes. Each wind is de-
scribed in some inscriptions as bearing
life both to the vegetable world and to
Osiris — especially it brings rebirth. G "
And to achieve this rebirth, the four
must unite into a single entity, bring-
ing the four elements into one body. 70
Now with reference to our papyrus it
is interesting that when the four thus
come together, each one is designated
as "the god of Such-and-such a dis-
trict," just as our four canopic jars are
designated by the Prophet as "the
idolatrous god of So-and-so. . . ."
Dick: Is So-and-so a person or a
country or what?
Mr. Jones: Well, we know that as
far as the Egyptians are concerned the
canopic jars do stand for "the earth in
its four quarters," just as Joseph Smith
said they did. We also know that for
the Egyptians the cardinal points and
the canopic figures as well definitely
stood for four regions of the earth and
the four races that inhabited them.
Dick: But here they are Egyptian
gods. Were all the four races Egyp-
Mr. Jones: Yes, when they knew their
place — countless inscriptions explain
that point of view. But we must under-
stand how the Egyptians thought of it.
In early times the basic division of
Egypt was not as you might suppose.
Dick: I know, into north and south,
lower and upper Egypt, the red and the
Mr. Jones: Yes. It was not divided
that way but into the four regions.
NSEW. The Egyptian ideogram for
"city" is also a circle divided into four
— each city having a "quarter" and so
following the same plan as the uni-
verse itself. 71 For that "quadrilateral"
division of space does not, of course,
stop with Egypt. The outer world was
also divided up into four main parts.
The concept was equally familiar to
the Babylonians, who thought of the
city and the land as being four-fold,
but also thought of the four cardinal
points of the compass as being identi-
fied with particular nations, races, and
colors. 7 - Remember, we are dealing
here with a Canaanite version, in
which the "idolatrous god of Pharaoh"
is only one of the party; the others do
not have to be Egyptian.
Jane: But don't the animal heads
make them Egyptian?
Mr. Jones: The animal heads seem
to have been borrowed by the Egyp-
tians in the first place. Originally the
canopic vases didn't have the animal
heads; they were just plain jars. 7:!
Scholars believe "that the therio-
morphic vase in Egypt, as elsewhere,
can be traced to an origin in northern
Syria." 71 Yet the four heads are already
canonically prescribed in the Pyramid
Texts, so that it is suggested that their
appearance in Egypt in the XIX
Dynasty was actually a return to the
old idea. 73 The idea behind the canopic
figures was certainly familiar to
Canaan, where, according to the rab-
bis, the princes of the various nations
were typified by animals, just as were
the princes of Israel. 7,;
Dick: But only four of them?
Mr. Jones: That was just a conces-
sion to the system. Thus, though from
time immemorial the Egyptians spoke
of the other nations as the "Nine
Bows," they believed that at the judg-
ment tbe four races of Mankind would
".. .as far as the
concerned, the canopic
jars do stand for the
'earth and its four
quarters,' just as.
Joseph Smith said
stand in their proper positions. 77 Re-
cently Professor Posener has shown
that the Egyptians named the peoples
and countries of the world after their
directions, and hence conceived of the
four great races as the inhabitants of
the four cardinal directions; to each of
the cardinal directions they also gave
cardinal colors — red, white, blue, and
green. 7S They knew that there were
many countries, of course, but they
insisted on fitting everything into the
system — a sort of cosmic plan that
seems to have hypnotized many ancient
Dick: So nobody had to borrow from
Mr. Jones: So the various ideas could
easily meet and fuse — -in Canaan, espe-
cially, the newly found Brooklyn
Papyrus shows the people familiar
with the same ideas: "The invoking of
four Babylonian deities is certainly evi-
dence of the presence of a Babylonian
cult in this area." The four gods in
question happen to be Bel, Nabu,
Shamash, and Nergal, so corresponding
closely to the four great gods of the
Egyptian four directions. Just as we
find in the secret place of resurrection
in Egyptian temples a special central
room in which the four winds were
depicted, so a newly discovered Assyrian
text tells of a "high chamber" within
a Ziggurat in which were found the
images of the four winds, each being
related to one of the four waters. S1 A
Hyksos tomb at Gaza, supplying a link
between Egypt and Asia in these things,
contains four chambers in each of the
four directions, with each containing
a human sacrifice. 8 - The Mandaeans
supply another link, and they have the
"All we can do here is to show
that the name El-kenah, far from being
an absurdity, is a very promising
candidate for research..."
same "quadrilateral" obsession as the
Egyptians and Babylonians: their four
rulers of the underworld, Krun, Shdum,
'Ur, and Gaf, represent the soft parts
and effusions of the body, just as the
eanopic jars do. S3 Still another link is
provided by a coffin from the Land of
Goshen, depicting the four sons of
Horus, entirely human, raising their
arms in praise or support beneath a
lion-couch on which the king lies
prone, i.e. in the act of arising, while
six royal crowns await him before the
couch and behind the four figures are
four times three arrows and the num-
ber 400. The location as well as the
motifs are reminders of the four-and-
twelve obsession of ancient Israel.* 14
A literary link between Egypt and
Canaan is Philo of Byblos, who says
that the god Bethel-Baityl was the sec-
ond of four brothers, begotten by
heaven and earth: El, Baityl, Dagon,
and Atlas. Sla A recent study of these
concludes that three of them were
actually Phoenician-Palestinian divin-
ities, i.e., idolatrous gods of the Ca-
naanites, while the fourth, Atlas,
represents an Egyptian deity who "de-
scends as a lion into his tomb." S4b
Jane: But didn't Atlas hold up the
Mr. Jones: Exactly. And Baetyl means
pillar— they were pillars of heaven.
The Mesopotamian and Egyptian ideas
met in Canaan: "The pharaohs also
served Syrian gods," writes S. Morenz,
"who made their countries tributary to
the Egyptian kings. Gods from Syria
. . . were venerated in Egypt . . . also in
settlements of immigrants." 85
Dick: So it worked both ways.
Mr. Jones: Yes. The Egyptians, "very
tolerant at all times toward strange
gods . . . undertook to adopt those of
Byblos," while the Syrians called their
solar god Re, just like the Egyptians,
giving him special epithets to keep
from confusing him with the Egyptian
Re. so A text from Ras Shamra baffled
everybody for a while until it was
realized that it was composed in the
manner of an Egyptian coronation
ode in honor of "the Egyptian overlord
of Ugarit." S7 And while "Egyptian
officials and soldiers in the cities of
Palestine and Syria" addressed the local
gods "with the same confidence as they
displayed towards their own home
gods," Asiatics living in Egypt wor-
shiped their own Asiatic gods, especially
the lady Astarte in the Hittite quarter
of Memphis. S8 In fact, "it became the
fashion among the Egyptians them-
selves to imitate Asiatic customs," and
in the worship of foreign gods
"the Pharaohs themselves took the
lead. . . ," so A Memphite papyrus lists
the names of the Memphite gods and
right along with them the Canaanitish
gods with their outlandish names. 00 So
we should not be too surprised by the
strange un-Egyptian but patently Se-
mitic names of our four idolatrous gods;
Egyptian idols often received such
Asiatic names, though interestingly
enough the reverse is not true: "While
the Egyptians so readily accepted Se-
mitic deities into their midst," wrote
Cerny, "there is no sign that their
subjects in Palestine and Syria showed
the same attitude towards the Egyptian
gods." 91 Consistent with this arrange-
ment, "the idolatrous god of Pharaoh"
appears among the other idolatrous
gods as a sort of fifth wheel, tolerated
because he must be — Pharaoh is call-
ing the tune in Asia at the moment
and must he shown due respect, but
at best the Egyptians intrude on the
local rites with "a god like unto the
god of Pharaoh." Fortunately, this
complicated theme is the subject of a
recent book, by R. Stadclmann, who
assures us that the Egyptians believed,
like everybody else, that throughout
the Near East "the native gods were
the mightiest, and that without their
help and support Pharaoh could not
rule these lands." 02 This would explain
the persistence of "the idolatrous god"
of this or that region along with the
sovereign position of "the idolatrous
god of Pharaoh" as depicted in the
Book of Abraham.
Dick: Even if the Egyptians had
Mr. Jones: That is just the point; it
was a fundamental belief, and one
consistently overlooked by scholars, ac-
cording to Stadelmann, that every god
had an inalienable right to his. -own
territory; hence, without the recogni-
tion and approval of the immemorial
local divinity of a region "no power
was legal": Pharaoh himself rules
everywhere in Canaan only by permis-
sion and with the aid of the local
Landsgott, who is never destroyed or
even suppressed, though often he be-
comes quickly Egyptianized. 0:i Please
note that the four idolatrous gods of
Facsimile No. 1, though having Ca-
naanite names, appear in conven-
tional Egyptian dress— that, to judge
by other examples, was quite a correct
procedure. 91 Look now at this picture
of the camp of Rameses II in Canaan:
here before a shrine in the midst of the
camp, a shrine that looks very much
as the Ark of the Covenant must have
looked when the Israelites brought it
out of Egypt, we see men of five dif-
ferent races praying, and over here
the king himself is seen bringing his
captives before another shrine in which
four gods are sitting. 05 Do those four
gods look familiar? Look at their
Jane: One has a hawk's head, and
one is human.
Mr. Jones: Notice that it happens to
be the head of Rameses himself.
Dick: But the others are a lion and
an ape — at least it could be an ape.
Mr. Jones: Well, we have seen that
the heads could change, though the
significance of the four figures remains
the same. Here Pharaoh's enemies in
Palestine are duly submitting to them
— and him. The Egyptian and Asiatic
meet and mingle in Palestine and
Syria from early times: at Byblos, for
example, we find our familiar Egyptian
lions and lotuses adorning royal cof-
fins and thrones, but with a very strong
Asiatic intermixture. 00 The idols of
Canaan tend to become stereotyped,
though retaining a great variety of
Dick: Do you mean that all they had
to do to change the identity of an idol
was to change its name?
Mr. Jones: The situation seems to
have been remarkably fluid, to judge
by Albrecht Alt's studies. According to
him the strange gods were constantly
coming and going, especially in the
desert. A certain idol would pass for
a time as "the god of So-and-so,"
So-and-so being the name of the man
who introduced the cult of that god
into an area. 08 The Egyptian expres-
sions "god of Ramesses" and "such-
and-such god of Ramesses" have long-
puzzled scholars; Montet has suggested
that "god of Ramesses" has a geographi-
cal significance, and the expression
definitely belongs to the overlapping
areas of Egypt and Canaan. 088
Dick: Why couldn't they just call
the god by his own name?
Mr. Jones: Perhaps because his name
was secret: according to a very wide-
spread belief in the East, to know the
name of a god or a demon gave one a
measure of control over him. But what-
ever the reason, it is an interesting fact
that when an idol is called "the god
of So-and-so" in an inscription, he is
never designated by a proper name of
Dick: The idols in the camp of
Rameses would certainly explain how
the four canopic figures got to be
known in Palestine.
Mr. Jones: It shows that they were
known, but not necessarily how. After
all, it has been suggested, as we have
seen, that the four canopic figures were
Syrian to begin with. The Jews had
their own four figures, whether the evil
spirits ruling the four winds and sea-
sons—the four "Devil-Mothers," 100 or
the primodial Tohu, Bohu, Khoek, and
Ruach, which correspond exactly to
the Egyptian Nw, Hehw, Kekw, and
Shw, indicating to Professor Jequier
that the writer of Genesis had access
to the very ancient Hermopolitan
Jane: In seminary we learned about
the four beasts in Daniel (7:2-8);. they
were winds too, and one was a winged
Dick: And in Revelation 7:1 it says,
"And after these things I saw four
angels standing on the four corners of
the earth, holding the four winds of
the earth. . . ." Isn't this just the same
as the Egyptian canopic idea?
Mr. Jones (impressed) : A. Grenfell
noted long ago that the imagery of the
four angels in Revelation is the same
as that of the Egyptian canopic jars,
so you needn't be so smart."" 1 - And
what about the strange heads?
Dick: Oh, they are there, too! ". . .
and in the midst of the throne, and
round about the throne, were four
beasts full of eyes [looking] before
Jane: They were like a lion, a calf,
an eagle, with one having the face of
a man. (Rev. 4:6-7.)
Mr. Jones (bemused) : And to think
that in Israel today kids your age
actually do talk like that. But only-
two of the heads are canopies, please
note — the man's and the eagle's.
Dick: Don't you remember that in
some temples the ape's and the jackal's
heads were replaced by those of an ox
and a ram?
Jane: Or a beetle's, for that matter.
Dick: Only the human head and the
bird's head remain unchanged all the
time. Also, John is describing a throne
scene, in which lions are a "must."
Mr. Jones: Yes, and the Egyptians
usually represented the South by a lion
and the North by a head of a bull or
a cow. So the four heads in John's
vision are actually the standard Egyp-
tian symbols of the four directions. So
our four "idolatrous gods" which
"represent the earth in its four quar-
ters" aren't so far from the Bible after
Dick: But what about their fancy
names? They aren't Egyptian and they
aren't found in the Bible either.
Mr. Jones: Ah, but they are found
elsewhere; that is the point. Let us
take them in order. First, the hawk-
headed canopic, "the idolatrous god of
Elkenah." We learn in Abraham 1:7
that "the priest of Elkenah was also
the priest ' of Pharaoh" — one priest
serving two masters: since one of the
masters was a king, the other may also
have been. Bearing in mind that in
the common expression "god of So-and-
so" the So-and-so is the name of the
king or chieftain who established the
idol's worship in a district, I would
say that Elkenah was a man — but a
man with a thcophoric name.
Jane: What's that?
Mr. Jones: It's the name of a person
made by combining the name of a
god with some other element — like
Uriah or Jezebel. In Palestine and
Syria it is common to find such names
combining Egyptian and west Semitic
elements. Well, one of the favorite
words of the Egyptians in building
such names was qen- or qeni (usually
written with a "k" with a dot under
it), which means "mighty," "power-
ful," or "brave." This element is
"often used in the first names of various
kings," according to the Berlin Dic-
tionary (V, 42), and is especially appro-
priate for the conquerors of foreign
lands. A typical example is the name
Amon-qen(i) or Qen(i)-Amon (V, 41),
meaning "Amon is mighty." According
to the dictionary (V,- 45), it is not
possible to distinguish the forms grit,
qni, qnw as to meaning, and the
Egyptians often leave. the final vowel
or consonant unwritten. The "q" here
represents a very hard "k" sound,
which is impossible to express in Eng-
lish, and I find it most interesting that
Joseph Smith sometimes spelled Elken-
ah with a double kk — a very odd and
unusual spelling by all accounts, which
justifies us in equating ken with qen.
If we go back to the great camp scene
of Rameses II, we find that among the
four canopic figures in the shrine the
hawk is represented as saying to the
king: "I give thee power (qn.t) against
the Southland, victory against the
North. ... I give thee the lands of the
earth. " in:; As a conqueror Rameses was,
we might say, qen-conscious, and since
qen-i, -&, -t was commonly used "as an
appendage of vague and general sig-
nificance to names of gods, designa-
tions of kings, and the like" (V, 42), it-
is a natural for the name of an idol;
and since it was common in Palestine
and Syria to combine Egyptian and
Canaanitish elements in the same
names, nothing could be more in order
than to call an idol El-kenah, meaning
"the god EI is mighty." Canaan in
Abraham's day was full of what E.
MacLaurin calls "synthesized titles,"
and he calls special attention to the
name El-qanna. 103a The commonest
element in such names was some word
for "strong" or "mighty" coupled with
the name of the god: Thus El Elyon or
Baal Aleyan means that the god is
"victorious," a "powerful hero." ln:il>
Equally common is the Egyptian fen. or
hny, and the well-attested name kny-ra
or Ra-qni is the exact equivalent of
El-Kenah, the Egyptians being much
interested in identifying their Ra with
the Caananite El. 103c
Dick: But what about the ah ending?
Mr. Jones: It is a characteristic of
Canaanite proper names written in
their Egyptian form. Thus the well-
known name Horan is written in Egyp-
tian Hwrwnana, a personal name, and
as a place name it is Hrwn-ah. 10 ' 1 The
name Ba'al itself is often written in
Egyptian with final -r instead of -I,
and sometimes the -r is omitted to
give Ba'ah. 10 "' This shift between final
-r and -ah is interesting because Joseph
Smith himself hesitates between El-
kenah and Elkkener. We shall con-
sider this r- trouble when we get to
some other names. Meanwhile, here
is a suggestive report by Bar Hehraeus
that "in the days of Tarh"— that is, of
Abraham's father, Terah — "the Egyp-
tians learned Chaldaeism."
Dick: Rather a neat point for the
Book of Abraham, I would say — hav-
ing the Egyptians go Chaldaean in the
days of Abraham, or rather of his
Mr. Jones: True, but that is only in-
cidental to the main point, which
is that in adopting Chaldaeism the
Egyptians of Abraham's day "made an
image of gold in honor of Kinos,
the idol." 3011 Bar Hebraeus has given the
name its Greek form as found in his
sources, but from this it would appear
that in their "Chaldaean" sphere the
Egyptians really did honor an idol
named Kenah or something very like
it. Whatever the name meant, it was
Dicfe: Could it designates region—
El-kenah, "the god of Kenah," or
something like that?
Mr. Jones: That is a distinct possi-
bility, in view of the latest study by
Father R. de Vaux. According to him,
the land of Canaan is designated in
the Amarna Letters as the land of
Kinahni or Kinahhi. 107 The Amarna
Letters, you may recall, were written
in Babylonian cuneiform but dis-
covered in the library of a famous
Dick: What happened to the second
"n" in Canaan?
Mr. Jones: Most of the time it is
missing. At Ras Shamra, a Canaanit-
ish library contemporary with the
Amarna Letters, the name is written
Kinahi, and a Canaanite is called a
kinahaiu.' 10 ' 7 A letter of Ramses II calls
Canaan Kinabhi, though the Egyptians
prefer Kn'n. But in the Amarna Let-
ters the ain turns into rough "h" and
the final "n" is dropped. The form
Kinahi, found both at Ras Shamra and
on Cyprus, was once wrongly thought
to be Human. 307 The point is that all
over the Egyptian-Syro-Palestinian
area Kinah was a common designation
for Canaan, and the name El-kenah
could certainly mean "God of Kenah"
or Canaan. But this suggests a third
possibility. It so happens that each of
the four canopic jars represented not
only one of the four winds or four
directions of the compass, but also that
particular part of the inhabited world
which lay in that particular direction.
It also happens that the hawk-headed
canopic figure always stood for the
lands to the east.
Jane: East of what?
Mr. Jones: Of Heliopolis, in all prob-
ability, since some scholars hold that
the canopic idea originated there,' and
the Egyptians themselves always re-
garded it as the exact center of the
world, the place of the beginning,
from which life went forth in all
directions to fill the world. 108 The
four birds went forth .from there to
announce the king's coronation to
"the Nomads of Nubia" in the south,
the Libyans of the west, and the
bedouins of Asia, but the fourth nation
is Egypt. 109 The king claims the earth
"South to the wind, North to the sea,
East to the Lands of the Gods, and
West to the limits of the sun's jour-
ney." 110 There is some confusion here
because since prehistoric times the
Pharaohs claimed Sinai as part of
Egypt, but beyond that everything to
the east was Kenite country. The
Kenites were those people "concerning
whose territory a covenant was made
with Abraham, and who have not yet
been conquered," that is, of all the
vast area described as Abraham's her-
itage in the Genesis Apocryphon. 111
The Rabbis identified Kenite country
with the deserts stretching all the way
from the southern tip of Arabia to Asia
Minor. 112 In the prophecies of the last
days the Kenites are identified with the
Ishmaelites, 113 and Nelson Glueck
equated them to the Rechabites, the
ancient secretaries of the Arabian
deserts. 1 " Jethro was called "the Ken-
ite," and his Midianite countrymen
called themselves the Kenim. 115 Some
have seen in these latter the beni Kain,
or sons of Cain, traveling smiths and
metal casters, with their wandering
habits and their blackened faces. 11 ' 1
According to H. Seebass, the Kenites
provide the link "between the Patri-
archal period and the desert period" of
Israel, their original home being the
Negev. 117 Whatever else they are, the
Kenites are from the Egyptian point
of view the people to the east, and
since the canopic hawk represents the
East, its name El-kenah might well
refer to the god of an eastern region or
Dick: So we have three choices.
Doesn't that leave us up in the air?
Mr. Jones: No more than students of
the Canaanites have always been.
There is still no agreement on the
meanings of the names Canaan, Kenite,
and how they are related. Remember,
our business is not to provide final
answers — we do not close doors, but
open them. All we can do here is to
show that the name El-kenah, far from
being an absurdity, is a very promising
candidate for research. Before we go
any further, it would be well to make
a chart to show these four canopic
idols in their symbolic perspective. The
possible variations on the chart will
remind us how very fluid the interpre-
tation of things still is, and how very
little is really known about any of
this business 118 (see chart below).
Notice that in Egyptian thinking these
figures are gods, races, nations, direc-
tions of the compass, and parts of the
body all at once; it is the same free-
wheeling type of interpretation we find
in the Pearl of Great Price. Of course
when we think in cosmic terms the four
canopies are stars — the four stars of the
bowl of the Big Dipper, spirits that
"carry Osiris in the procession" to
heaven. 11 "
Desert People ('Amu)
Palestine & Syria
(To be continued)
'A. De Buck, in Journal of Egyptian Archae-
ology, Vol. 35 (1949), p. 87. The title is that
given by T. G. Allen, The Egyptian Book of
the Dead (University of Chicago, 1960), p.
150. Budge calls it "The Chapter of Making
Transformation into a Divine Falcon."
-E. A. W. Budge, The Papyrus of Ani (New
York, 1913), Vol. 2, p. 535.
• ! De Buck, op. cit., pp. 87-97; the text is in
his Coffin Texts, IV, 68-86.
4 E. Drioton, in Bibliotheca Orientalis, Vol.
10 (1953), p. 171; H. Brunner, in Ztschr. de.r
Dt. Morgenland. Ges., Vol. 3 (1961), p. 445.
"If one underlines all passages in the Naville
text of Book of the Dead 78 ( Das aegypt.
Todtenbuch [Berlin, 1886], pp. 164ff) which
are identical with those in Coffin Text 312,
more than four-fifths of the material will be
found to be the same in both texts.
°De Buck, op. cit.
"J. A. Wilson, in Dialogue, Vol. 3 ( Summer
1968), pp. 67-88. Thus it is easier to assem-
ble a jigsaw puzzle even when many pieces are
missing if one has a completed sketch before
one than it is to put together a complete set of
pieces without a guide to follow.
6 De Buck discusses the merits of D. Gunn's
assertion that it is sufficient for the student to
confine himself to the text at hand without ref-
erence to what form it may have had in the
remote past— a pointed commentary on the will-
ful myopia of scholarship. Ibid., p. 87.
"De Buck, op. cit., p. 88.
w Ibid„ p. 89.
"Drioton, op. cit., p. 168.
^Ibid., p. 171.
"Brunner, op. cit. (note 4 above), p. 442.
^Ibid., p. 445.
^Drioton, op. cit., p. 167.
"•Ibid., p. 171.
,7 Line 68c, rendered "govern for me" ( Drio-
ton), "watch over me" (Brunner), and "clear
my ways" (De Buck), the common idea being
"relieve me from my helplessness!"
18 T. G. Allen, Eg. Book of the Dead, pp.
160f, PI. XXVI. Of course there is always the
possibility that the vignette has nothing to
do with the text it accompanies.
10 Brunner, op. cit., p. 443.
20 Ibid., p. 440. De Buck renders hwi as
"Command," while Drioton, p. 169, para-
phrases the passage: "He must go and ask for
a decision from the supreme Lord."
-'Brunner, pp. 442, 444.
-nbid., p. 442.
2;J Drioton, op. cit., p. 167.
■^Ibid., p. 169; T. G. Allen, B.D., p. 151.
It reminds one very much of the all-important
turban in the Mandaean initiations: "Sam-
Haije sent me with the turban of radiance
to be a garment for the King so that the Uthras
might shine through him." Mand. Johannesbuch
(Lidzbarski), p. 206; Ginza, pp. 191f, 194.
-This expression has caused all the trans-
lators trouble; two of them take it as a mistake,
while Drioton (p. 169) says it refers to some
lost episode of the drama. That it is not a
mistake in Ms. B2Bo, where it occurs twice
(87c, e), should be apparent when one con-
siders that Egyptian scribes in a hurry do not
go out of their way to dig up forgotten archaic
ideograms and words when modern alternatives
are at their disposal. Here the expression is
"through the partition" ( Wbrterbuch IV, 14,
4), and the ideogram represents the archaic
door or screen made of rushes and rolled up
from the bottom. One is also reminded of the
"reed wall" through which God was said to
have spoken to Utnapishtim, the Babylonian
Noah, warning him of the Flood and giving
him the instructions necessary for his escape
-°So Drioton, p. 171.
-"Bninner, p. 442.
- 8 Such as this writer discussed long ago in
the Classical Journal, Vol. 40 (1945), pp. 515-
o « * *
3i C. J. Bleeker, in Nttmcn, Vol. 11 (1964),
35 E. Drioton & J. Vandier, L'Egypt, p. 90.
;ili P. Derchain, Rites Egyptiens, I, 40, 52.
;l7 He wears the mask both as executioner and
healer, Appian, Bell, civ., IV, 47, Artemidorus,
Onirocrit., V, 92, in Hopfner, Pontes, p. 359;
Apuleius, Metam. XI, 11.
^H. Altcnmueller, in Chron. d'Egypte, Vol.
42 (1967), p. 81.
^Drioton & Vandier, op. cit., p. 94.
in H. Nibley, in BYU Studies, Autumn 1968,
■"Derchain, op. cit., I, 52.
42 H. Junker, Die Stundenwachcn in den
Osirismysterien (Vienna, 1910), p. 2; G. Je-
quier, in Sphinx, Vol. 14 (1911), p. 179.
"H. Mueller, in Mitt, des dt. Inst, der Alter-
tumskundc zu Kairo, Vol. 7 (1937), p. 59.
"Ibid., pp. 59ff.
* S P. T. v. Recklinghausen, in Aeg. Ztschr.,
Vol. 63 (1928), p. 15; M. de Rochemonteix, in
Bibliothcque Egyptologiquc, Vol. 3 (1894), pp.
183-85, 248: H. Schacfer, Von aegyptischer
Kunst (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1963), pp.
^•"Lebensmiidc, 79-80, cit. A. Gardiner, Eg.
Gram., p. 317.
isbin p yr . Text No. 674 (1999) "they who
are before Thoth are slaughtered with the knife
belonging to Seth." For the type of knife, E.
Massoulard, Prehistoire et Protohistoire d'Egypte
(Paris, 1949), Plates xliii, lix, lx.
■"'H. Kees, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 78 (1942),
ir,n Thc Blinding of Truth by Falsehood, in A.
Gardiner, Late-Egyptian Stories ( Brussels,
1932), pp. 30-36. There is a remarkable
parallel to this in the Norse Folk-tale of True
and Untrue, No. 1 in G. W. Dasent's Popular
Tales from the Norse (Edinburgh, 1888), pp.
^Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 1 (Plates),
4S For a complete bibliography of the Classical
sources, Th. Hopfner, Pontes Hist. Relig.
Aegypt., p. 821.
4i> Hopfner, loc. cit., lists 15 sources that have
Hercules put Busiris to death and two that
deny it. Three writers claim that the Busiris
story is only a mythical presentation of the
rough treatment afforded strangers in Egypt.
50 G. A. Wainwright, The Sky-Religion in
Egypt, p. 63.
flbid., pp. 60, 62; Herodot., II, 139.
a -C. De Wit, in Chroniques d'Egypte, Vol.
32 (1957), pp. 35-37.
S3 L. Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, Vol. 1,
p. 54; Vol. 5, pp. 71f, with sources; M. J. bin
Gorion, Die Sagen der Judcn, I, 101; also a
popular early Christian concept, Simeon of Ge-
sir, Potter's Songs, in Oriens Christianus, Vol. 3
(1913), p. 225.
M M. Chassinat, in Rec. Trav., Vol. 38 (1916),
=%!. de Rochemonteix, in Bibl. Egyptol., Vol.
3, p. 249.
■" ,(i E. A. W. Budge, Egyptian Magic, p. 90.
•"'G. Thausing, in Mitt, Dt. Inst. Arch, zu
Kairo, Vol. 8 (1939), pp. 54, 60. On a shrine
from Medinet Habu four kings supporting the
sky stand on pillars of heaven as depicted in
Joseph Smith Papyri, No. 1. Medinet Halm,
Vol. 4, PL 229, cf. 217. The idea of the four
as stars survives in Cyprian's teaching, de Sina
et Sion in Migne, Patrologia Latino, Vol. 4, Col.
994, that Adam's name is taken from the
initials of four stars that God placed in each
of the cardinal points.
^A. Varille, in Ann. Serv., Vol. 53, p. 90.
50 J. Baillet, in Rec. Trav., Vol. 22 (1900).
°°A. Gardiner, in Jul. Eg. Arch., Vol. 36
(1950), pp. 10-12.
01 De Wit, op. cit., pp. 37f.
oi At the end of the Sed festival the order
"Silence" was repeated 4 times, the 4 arrows
were shot, the king sat on 4 thrones, one facing
each direction, Frankfort, Kingship and the
Gods, p. 88. When the King is ordered by
Osiris to appear as the second Horus "the 4
spirits of Heliopolis" write his name (Pyr. Text
No. 467), and when Osiris comes out of heaven
"the 4 pure poles are set up for him" ( Pyr.
Text No. 303). Only two poles (the solstices)
are set up for Re, but they are set up 4 times
(Pyr. Text Nos. 263, 264). In the purification
rite the Smn priest goes around the statue 4
times, called shenen (A. Moret, Culte Pharaon-
ique, p. 202, B.D. 34:2). In a mimic human
sacrifice 4 red animals were slain at a round
hole representing the mouth of the underworld,
like the "mundus" or "orcus mundi" in the
center of Roma quadrata ( G. Lefebure, in Bibl.
Egyptol., Vol. 36, p. 288). In taking possession
at his coronation the Pharaoh would "pass
through the land, touching the 4 sides. . . . He
ran across the ocean and the 4 sides of heav-
en . . ." (H. Kees, in Aeg. Ztscher., Vol. 52,
pp. 68ff, from an inscription in Edfu). Not
only power but danger comes from the four
directions, "the enemies that converge from the
4 cardinal regions of the world" ( J. Monnet, in
Rev. d'Egyptologie, Vol. 8 , p. 152).
"SA. Moret, Culte Pharaoniquc, pp. 27f.
Gi H. Grapow, Totenbuch, Kap. 17, p. 43.
^'G. Thausing, op. cit., pp. 52f; Pyramid
Text No. 573 (1483).
■ ^A very old tradition has Geb sitting on the
throne of the universe "at the place of the 4
crocodiles, Sobak-Ra, Shu, Geb, Osiris-Ra," as
they planned the creation of the world, G.
Goyon, in Kemi, Vol. 6 (1936), pp. 37f.
«De Wit, op. cit., p. 29.
^Ibid., p. 39. The Improvement Era, Febru-
ary 1968, p. 40g; translated by Prof. J. A. Wil-
son, in Dialogue, Summer 1968, p. 75.
(wp e Wit, op. cit., p. 25.
~' ] Ibid„ p. 31, citing a hymn to Khum, in
which the 4 gods must come together and
unite into one to give eternal life to Osiris.
T1 K. Sethe, Uebers. u. Kommentar z. d. Pyra-
midentextcn, I, 96.
"-P. Neugebauer, in Archie fur Orientfor-
schung, Vol. 7 (1931-2), pp. 269-71.
73 K. Sethe, Zur Gesch. der Einhalsamierung
(Preuss. Akad. Sitz. her., 1934), p. 217.
™S. R. K. Glanville, in Jnl. Eg. Arch., Vol.
12 (1926), p. 57.
■A. Rusch, Die Entwicklung der Himmels-
gocttin Nut zu einer Gotthcit (Leipzig, 1922),
T0 L. Cohn, in Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol.
10 (1898), pp. 316f.
77 E. Lefebure, in Proc. of the Soc. of Bibl.
Archaeoh, Vol. 4 (1875), pp. 44-48.
TS G. Posener, in Goettingcr Nachrichten,
1965, No. 2, pp. 76f. Pyr. Text No. 457ff
invokes "the four gods of the four regions who
make their vigilant rounds of the four parts of
the earth," which Prof. Moret equates with the
4 qibratu of the Cuneiform texts. The Egyptian
underworld is depicted as a pool of fire with a
cynocephalus ape guarding each of the four
sides. A. Moret, Lc Jugcment du Roi Mart . . .
(Melun, 1922), pp. 22, 26; Book of the Dead,
Ch. 125. Up above, the 4 sons of Horus open
and close the 4 gates of heaven, (bid., p. 13,
and Pyr. Text No. 688 (2078).
7a A fairly recent bibliography of works rele-
vant to this subect may be found in our foot-
notes in Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 19
(1966), pp. 602-7. See also W. Mueller, Die
heitige Stadt (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1961).
sft E. G. Kraeling, The Brooklyn Museum Ara-
maic Papyri (1953), p. 86; cf. C. De Wit,
op, cit., p. 31.
8l J, Nougayrol, in Revue d'Assyriologie, Vol.
60 (1966), pp. 72-74.
S -Z. Mayani, Lcs Hyksos et le Monde de la
Bible (Paris: Payot, 1956), p. 92, Fig. 17.
^E. Drawer, The 1012 Questions (Berlin,
1960), p. 240. The Mandaeans also had the
idea that "the four winds . . . are four supports
which hold up the skies," ibid., p. 213. To the
Egyptian mind "the intestines were necessary
for digestion over which the four sons of Horus
watched and whose four heads are on canopic
jars," J. Zandee, in Bibliotheca Orientalis, Vol.
19 (1962), p. 39. The concept goes back to
prehistoric times, according to Sethe, Balsa-
micrung, p. 220, though Rusch, Nut, p. 45,
holds that the original function of the four
canopic figures was to guard against hunger.
SI E. Naville, The Shrine of Soft el-IIcnnch &
the Land of Goshen (London, 1885), PI. 6.
"*" Kraeling, op. cit., p. 89.
^'•D. M. duBuisson, in Rev. de VHist. des
Religions, Vol. 169 (1966), pp. 36ff, 44, 48.
• S "S. Morenz, Aegyptischc Religion, pp. 247f.
S0 P. Montet, Lc Drame d'Avaris (Paris, 1941),
8T T, H. Gaster, in Egyptian Religion, Vol. 3
(1934), pp. 95ff.
**J. Cerny, Ancient Egyptian Religion, pp.
*>Ibid., p. 126.
,M lbid„ p. 127, and W. F. Petrie, Religious
Life in Ancient Egypt, pp. 58f.
ul Cerny, p. 138.
°-R. Stadelmann, Syrisch-Palaestinensische
Gottheiten in Aegypten (Leiden: Brill, 1967),
™Ibid., pp. 17-18.
!l! The classic example is the Lady of Byblos,
who though appearing in completely Egyptian
dress and insignia retains none-the-less her old
non-Egyptian name and personality. Ibid., p.
"•">W. Wreszinski, Atlas, II, Pt. iii, Taf. 169,
!IB N. Aime-Giron, in Ann. Serv., Vol. 42
(1943), pp. 290, 294, with many illustrations.
!IT E. Kraeling, in Jnl. of Near Eastern Studies,
Vol. 6 (1947), pp. 201-8.
"SA. Alt, Essays on Old Testament History
and Religion (Oxford, 1966), pp. 37-39.
0Sa B. Couroyer, in Revue Biblique, Vol. 61
(1954), pp. 108-9.
™Alt., p. 34.
100 The four Sons of Horus are matched by
the four evil murderers of Osiris, K. Sethe,
Gesch. der Einbalsamicrung, p. 214, correspon-
ding to the four fevers matching the four
humors in man, Hippocrates, De Nat. Horn.,
21: 359f, 369. These correspond to the four
Devil-Mothers ruling or misruling the seasons,
M. J. bin Gorion, Sagen der Juden, I, 337.
Like the Egyptians, the Jews also taught that
mankind was saved from destruction by the
South-wind by a falcon which came and spread
out its protecting wings. Ibid., I, 54.
W1 G. Jequier, Considerations stir les Religs.
Egs., pp. 155f.
102 A. Grenfell, in The Monist, Vol. 16 ( 1906),
ira Above, note 95.
103fL E. MacLaurin, in Journal of Religious His-
tory, Vol. 2, p. 286; though the expression El
Qanna appears in the Old Testament, only the
Canaanitish records show it to be the proper
name of a local idol.
™* b Ibid., p. 284.
103c H. Ranke, Aegyptisch Pcrsonncn namen,
I, 220, No. 5; p. 335, No. 2, 7-10, 15, 18, 821.
1<M Stadelmann, op. cit., p. 86.
™->Ibid., p. 13.
lw Bar Hebraeus, Chronology, I, 9. (Trsl.
E. A. W. Budge, Oxford, 1932.)
™ T R. de Vaux, in Jnl. Amcr. Or. Soc, Vol. 88
(1968), pp. 23f.
l0s See above, note 68.
™ n S. Schott, in Aeg. Ztschr., Vol. 95 (1968),
110 Jbirf.. p. 60.
1U H. Klein, The Code of Maimonidcs, Bk. XI
(Yale University Press, 1954), p. 219.
^-Midrash Rob., Gen. 44:23.
m B. Lewis, in Bull, of the Oriental and
African School, Vol. 13 (1949), pp. 312f.
1U N. Glueck, in Palestine Exploration Quar-
terly, 1940, pp. 22-24.
"^Z. Mayani, Lcs Hyksos ct le Monde de la
Bible, p. 184; R. Eisler, Die Kcnitischen Wei-
hinschriften der Hyksoszeit (Freiburg, 1919),
lia Eisler, p. 81. According to the Jewish En-
cyclopedia, s.v. Kenites, the Midianites into
whose people Moses married were Kenites, and
"their eponymous ancestor was Cain." They
later became completely absorbed into the tribe
of Judah. See R. North, in Jnl. Bibl. Lit., Vol.
83 (1964) pp. 373-89.
UT H. Seebass, Erzvater Israels, Zt. f. A.T.
Wiss., Beiheft 98 (1966), p. 106.
lls The chart is based on E. Naville, in Aeg.
Ztschr., Vol. 15 (1877), pp. 29f. The parts of
the body follow the later interpretation, A. Pian-
koff, Shrines of Tutankhamon, p. 19, n. 39.
Another system has East: Hawk-headed disk,
Re-Harakhte Lord of Heaven; West: Scarab
headed Khepri coming out of the ocean; North:
Ram-headed Mendes the life (Ka) of the King;
South: Human-headed Atum of .Heliopolis, J.
De Wit, in Chron. d'Egypte, Vol. 32, pp. 31f.
At the purification of the king, the East is the
Hawk, the West is the Ibis, the North is the
jackal-like Seth-animal, and the South is Horus
the Hawk, E. Otto, in Orientalia, Vol. 7, pp.
69ff. The doubling of the hawk, which occurs
in the story of the Messenger-Hawk (above),
has recently been noted by P. Munro, in Aeg.
Ztschr., Vol. 95 (1968), p. 37. The fullest
discussion of the system is the oldest, H.
Brugsch, Die Geographic des altcn Aegyptens
(Leipzig, 1857), pp. 30-34.
1ln K. Sethe, Gesch. der Einbalsamicrung, pp.
218f. See above, note 84.
id' " ■
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